Archive for the ‘Russia’ Category

Weekly Links

Down to Earth

SpaceX’s CEO Elon Must tweeted this fun video compilation of the companies many rocket failures over the past few years. You can tell they are learning a lot of lessons that have led to their recent successes.

Meanwhile, their Dragon capsule which has been docked to the International Space Station for about a month will be returning to Earth Sunday.

In Orbit

Two rocket launches since my last post, both from Baikonaur Kazakhstan:

First, a Russian Proton rocket launched a Latin American communications satellite.

Then a Soyuz rocket carried three crew members to the International Space Station: Alexander Misurkin, Mark Vande Hei, and Joe Acaba. They joined their Expedition 53 crewmates early last week to make a full crew of 6 onboard.

Around the Solar System

The incomparable Cassini probe ended its mission this past Friday with a planned suicide dive into the clouds of Saturn. The probe was launched in 1997 and was one of the most successful planetary missions of all time, but it had finally run out of fuel. This Ars Technica article has a brief photo gallery of Cassini’s greatest hits.

One of Cassini’s last acts was a flyby of the moon Titan. Here are some pictures.

And here’s a gallery of photos from mission control at JPL during Cassini’s last day.

Or if you prefer silly things, here is actor Robert Picardo singing an opera parody about Cassini:

Weekly Links

I’m back from my own personal August recess and catching up on almost a month of space news. Here’s your headline dump for August 14 to September 9! A lot has happened

Down to Earth

The Trump Administration has named Oklahoma Congressman Jim Bridenstine as their nominee for NASA administrator.

The Chinese and European astronauts conducted a joint survival training exercise off the coast of China.

Sierra Nevada Corporation conducted a “captive carry” flight of their Dream Chaser spaceplane.

Last week an ESA Ariane 5 rocket had a pad abort. The agency is still investigating.

In Orbit

The Dragon capsule launched two days earlier docked with the ISS on August 16th.

The day after the cargo. arrival, cosmonauts Fyodor Yurchikhin and Sergey Ryazanskiy conducted a successful spacewalk to do space station maintenance as well as some small satellites deployments.

Then on September 3rd a Soyuz returned to Earth, safely carrying Jack Fischer, Peggy Whitson, and Fyodor Yurchikhin to the steppes of Kazakhstan. Both Yurchikhin and Whitson now have accumulated over 600 days in space.

Meanwhile on the ground, a dedicated team of flight controllers was riding out Hurricane Harvey in Houston’s Mission Control Center to ensure the successful undocking and return of the crew.

Speaking of hurricanes, the ISS crew has taken some incredible imagery of Irma has it makes its way across the Caribbean and now Florida.

Lots of launches while I was out. Here’s a worldwide rundown:

Around the Solar System

Congratulations to the engineers and scientists on the New Horizons project; the International Astronomical Union has selected many of their original choices for features on Pluto as official names!

Good news for Mars enthusiasts: there is new talk at NASA of planning a robotic Mars sample return mission for the middle of the 2020s.

Weekly Links

Down to Earth

Space Camp USA, in Huntsville, Alabama, unveiled a new outdoor display of one of the former Shuttle Training Aircraft.

NASA completed some egress testing of the Orion capsule in the Gulf of Mexico.

Here’s a nice short video that will help you get to know Randy Bresnik, who is launching to the ISS next week.

I also enjoyed this short biographical video about Ana Fisher, one of the first American women astronauts.

The latest of NASA’s medium-duration isolation spaceflight analog crews, HERA 13, finished their mission last week.

The independent NASA visitor center in Houston, Space Center Houston, has announced a Kickstarter campaign to help raise additional funds for their project to restore MOCR2 in the Christopher C. Kraft Mission Control Center on the Johnson Space Center campus. MOCR2 is most famous for being the flight control room during the Apollo 11 lunar landing. However, it was used for every Apollo flight starting with Apollo 8, as well as many Space Shuttle missions. In addition to being a site of much triumph (Apollo 8, Apollo 11, STS-1, etc) it was also the active control room during the Apollo 1 fire and the launch of Challenger on STS-51L. Here’s the Kickstarter link. I have already pledged!

Google has posted a brand new “street view” tour from inside the International Space Station! To get to it, navigate to NASA Johnson Space Center on Google Maps and drop the street view icon right on top of Building 9 Space Vehicle Mockup Facility.

In Orbit

Up on the actual ISS, the crew has been busy getting ready for the arrival of the next crew on July 27th. The Progress cargo craft departed with trash on July 20th.

But the NASA crew of Jack Fischer and Peggy Whitson still had time to share their mission with us with a couple informative videos:

Only one rocket launch since my last post on July 9th. Russia launched a Soyuz rocket from Kazakhstan carrying payloads for commercial companies, including an impressive array of small “Dove” satellites for American company Planet. Even more impressively, Planet captured this beautiful footage of the launch from one of their spacecraft already in orbit:

Around the Solar System

To celebrate two years since the New Horizons flyby of Pluto, NASA released this amazing video that simulates a flyover of Pluto using mission imagery.

Speaking of the New Horizons mission, NASA’s amazing airborne observatory SOFIA did a special mission to catch an occultation of 2014 MU69, the Kuiper Belt object that the probe will visit next. Check out Phil Plait’s post on the event for some actual images of the occultation.

Out at Jupiter, NASA’s  Juno probe did a close flyby of the Great Red Spot and returned some amazing images.

Weekly Links

Down to Earth

NASA successfully completed its latest underwater NEEMO mission off the coast of Florida. A crew of astronauts and engineers spent several days in an underwater base testing techniques, gear, and technology for spaceflight. This was the 22nd expedition to the underwater facility.

The Canadian Space Agency announced the selection of their two latest Astronaut Candidates. Jennifer Sidley is a 28-year-old PhD and professor at the University of Cambridge. Joshua Kutryk is a 35-year-old fighter pilot and test pilot with several master’s degrees.

The President of the United States signed an executive order establishing a National Space Council, to guide all of the nation’s endeavours related to spaceflight.

In Orbit

There were five rocket launches since my last post:

Yes, SpaceX had a 48 hour turnaround between two launches, to reach 9 launches on the year. Both first stages were recovered.

In a non-orbital launch, NASA launched an experiment sounding rocket from Virginia’s Wallops Island.

A large satellite in geostationary orbit appears to have broken apart, causing concerns about orbital debris in one of the most important Earth orbits.

Around the Solar System

A recent survey of outer solar system bodies, which found several new distant objects, casts doubt on the hypothesized existence of “Planet 9″. However, the lead researchers of the Planet 9 theory have done their own analysis of the new data, and claim that the data can fit the model. The hunt for Planet 9 continues.

The Curiosity rover is still climbing up Mount Sharp in the center of Gale Crater on Mars. Recently, the MRO spacecraft captured this image of the rover from orbit.

Weekly Links

Down to Earth

Orbital ATK performed a qualification test firing of the abort motor for the Orion spacecraft.

A recent study at the University of Nevada – Las Vegas (UNLV) found that the cancer risk for a journey to Mars may be higher than previously thought. Spaceflight Insider published a response opinion piece by Robert Zubrin (author of The Case for Mars).

Jeffrey Kluger (science editor at time and coauthor with Jim Lovell of Apollo 13) has published a new book Apollo 8 about humanity’s first mission to orbit the moon. I am currently listening to the book on Audible and will publish a review next week.

A private company based in Europe called Bake In Space has announced plans to fly an experimental zero-gravity oven and dough recipe to the space station.

In Orbit

There have been two orbital rocket launches in the last week:

The Progress freighter arrived at ISS this past Friday and docked successfully, delivering supplies from station propellant to food, water, and science experiments.

Tragically, an employee of the Russian space program died after he was deployed to the cleanup zone after the Soyuz launch and a fire engulfed his truck.

The Chinese space agency has tested robotic refueling with their uncrewed Tianzhou freighter at the Tiangong-2 space station.

Ever since the SpaceX Dragon capsule docked to the ISS last week, robotics engineers have been busy at work unloading new science experiments, including the NICER neutron star observatory and the Roll Out Solar Array (ROSA).

Out There

Astronomers continue to search for habitable, Earth-like planets around other stars. However, other oddball planets also continue to pop up, like KELT-9b, which is the hottest planet ever discovered.

Weekly Links

Down to Earth

It was a busy two weeks since my last post, but the most important event for those of us in the ISS program was the safe return of two crew members from the ISS on June 2nd. France’s Thomas Pesquet and Russia’s Oleg Novitskiy undocked and landed on the same day, leaving Fyodor Yurchikhin, Peggy Whitson, and Jack Fischer aboard ISS.

Speaking of astronauts, NASA announced a new class of 12 astronaut candidates last week at an event at Johnson Space Center. Here is a link to their short bios, and the complete video of the event is below. Notably, the United States Vice President came to JSC for the event. Also, 3 of the candidates under thirty (the first time anyone of my generation has been selected) and one of the candidates is a former SpaceX employee.

Also speaking of astronauts, the astronaut office has a new chief astronaut. Patrick Forrester has replaced Chris Cassidy in the role. The change was made so that Cassidy can go back into flight rotation.

The enormous Stratolaunch aircraft – designed to air launch large orbital rockets – made a debut in Mojave, California when it was rolled out for a fueling test.

Also in Mojave, Virgin Galactic’s SpaceShipTwo conducted another glide test flight.

LEGO has released a $120 model kit of the Saturn V.

In Orbit

Five orbital rocket launches so far in June:

Up at the International Space Station, the station crew was busy with cargo transfer. First, the Cygnus vehicle, which had been docked for a month, departed and then two days later the SpaceX Dragon capsule was successfully captured by the robotic arm.

Around the Solar System

The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter was struck by a meteor. Remarkably, the results were captured in an image.

NASA has announced a solar investigation probe that will launch next year.

Weekly Links

Down to Earth

Two very accomplished former NASA astronauts, Dr. Mike Foale and Dr. Ellen Ochoa, were inducted into the Astronaut Hall of Fame.

SpaceX conducted a static fire test in Florida in preparations for their next rocket launch on Thursday, June 1. This launch is a Dragon cargo mission headed to the ISS.

The New Zealand company (but based in Los Angeles), Rocket Lab, had their first launch last week. The Electron rocket was launched as strictly a test flight, and thus carried no payload.

In Orbit

Astronauts Peggy Whitson and Jack Fischer conducted a contingency spacewalk on May 23rd to replace a failed computer outside the ISS. The repair was successful and Peggy Whitson now has the 3rd all-time most hours on spacewalks, having been on 10 EVAs.

Three orbital rocket launches since my last post on May 14th:

  • May 15 – A Falcon 9 rocket launched a communications satellite for Inmarsat from Florida
  • May 18 – An ESA Soyuz rocket launched a communications satellite for SES from French Guiana
  • May 25 – A Russian Soyuz rocket launched a military satellite from Plesetsk in northern Russia

Two astronauts will undock their Soyuz from the ISS later this week and head home. Check out these brief reflections from ESA’s Thomas Pesquet as he prepares to end his mission:

Weekly Links

Down to Earth

SpaceX’s latest Dragon capsule left the ISS on March 19th and was successfully recovered by the company at sea.

A new exhibit about Valentina Tereshkova, the first woman in space, has opened at the Science Museum in London.

The White House released their budget proposal for 2018, including proposed spending on NASA. The proposal funds NASA at $19.1 billion, which is a slight cut. Taking into account inflation, it comes out to a few percent less than what NASA is working under in 2017. If you really really love reading about budgets, here is a super long post from Casey Dreier at the Planetary Society breaking down the proposal.

The European Space Agency is having trouble with their only orbital launch site down in French Guiana as a general strike is causing most of society in the small French territory to grind to a halt. There had been an Ariane 5 rocket launch planned for last week that continues to be delayed.

In Orbit

There have been three successful orbital rocket launches since my last post on March 12th:

Meanwhile, SpaceX is working towards their next rocket launch. The next Falcon 9 rocket will be a commercial launch of the SES-10 communications satellite. The exciting part of this mission is that it will be the first flight of a reused first stage booster. The static fire test was completed today, with launch scheduled for Thursday evening.

On the International Space Station, the Expedition 50 crew is very busy with a series of spacewalks that will serve as Commander Shane Kimbrough’s send off before he comes home in early April. The first spacewalk was conducted last Friday, March 24th, when Kimbrough and Thomas Pesquet spent six and a half hours outside conducting various repairs and upgrades.

One of the spacewalk’s tasks was to disconnect Pressurized Mating Adapter 3 (PMA-3) before it was robotically moved this past Sunday to its new home on top of Node 2 for future dockings of the Dragon and Starliner spacecraft.

The next spacewalk is this coming Thursday. here is an hour long briefing from last week that describes the spacewalk plans in detail (keep in mind the discussed arrival of the Orbital ATK Cygnus cargo craft has since slipped):

Next up is your weekly dose of awesome Twitter photos from the ISS crew (and go check out Oleg Novitskiy who posts exclusively to his Instagram account).

Weekly Links

Down to Earth

Funeral services were held for Gemini and Apollo astronaut Eugene Cernan in Houston on January 24th.

The Russian workhorse heavy-lift rocket, the Proton, is currently grounded due to a new hardware recall. The rocket may be grounded through the spring, delaying a backlog of commercial flights.

The new US presidential administration and Congress are starting to have an impact on NASA’s plans. A few notable things happened in the beltway over the past few months.

  1. Acting NASA administrator Robert Lightfoot is looking into whether the first SLS flight could be crewed by astronauts rather than unmanned. This would potentially move up the timeline for NASA’s exploration plans by several years.
  2. An authorization bill in Congress could direct NASA back to having Orion capable of supporting ISS crew flights as a backup to the Commercial Crew plan.
  3. The Sierra Nevada Corporation is proposing that their Dreamchaser spacecraft could be used for a sixth Hubble servicing mission.

Severe weather in Louisiana on February 7th included a tornado which struck NASA’s Michoud facility near New Orleans. NASA facilities sustained damage but all employees are safe with no major injuries.

In Orbit

There have been five successful orbital rocket launches since my last update on January 23rd:

  1. On January 24th, Japan launched a military communications satellite on an H-IIA rocket.
  2. On January 28th, Arianespace launched a spanish communications satellite from French Guiana on a Soyuz rocket.
  3. On February 14th, Arianespace launch telecommunications satellites for Indonesia and Brasil from French Guiana on an Ariane 5 rocket.
  4. On February 15th, India launched a wide array of small satellites (104 in all) on their PSLV rocket.
  5. On February 19th, SpaceX launched an uncrewed Dragon spacecraft to the ISS on a Falcon 9 rocket from Florida.

And of course, here’s the awesome video of the Falcon 9’s first stage booster returning to Landing Zone 1 at CCAFS.

Up on the ISS, two cargo spacecraft departed. First, the Japanese HTV left ISS in late January. It stayed in orbit for another week with plans to conduct a tether experiment. However, the tether failed to deploy. HTV was followed quickly by the departure of Progress MS-03 from a nadir facing port of the space station.

Around the Solar System

NASA has decided to leave the Juno probe in it’s longer 56-day orbit around Jupiter instead of the planned closer 14-day orbit. This decision is based on anomalies seen with the probe’s main engine and worries that another burn will not go per plan.

2016 In Review – Part I

2015 year in review posts: Part I and Part II.

2014 year in review posts: Part I and Part II.

2013 year in review posts: Part I and Part II.

Part I – Exploration

Spaceflight, as a many-hundred billion-dollar sector, is a broad and complex industry. Even if we focus in on “exploration” – which is the primary focus of this blog – so that we can ignore military and commercial uses of Earth orbit, we are still left with a global list of activities, studies, missions, and companies. This means there is a lot of stuff going on. 2016 was a busy year with many exciting missions from several different countries. This diversity is great, but makes it hard to boil down the events of last year into a coherent story. Even within NASA, we have the ISS program, with its own highs and lows, and the totally separate and just as successful planetary science portfolio of missions. Those missions keep on going, regardless of whether the most recent cargo delivery has made it to our astronauts in orbit, for instance. Meanwhile, in China, the CNSA is continuing to grow as a nascent space power with new rockets, new launch sites, and a brand new space station. Then there’s Russia, Japan, Europe, India, and more. If any theme can be found at all in the events of last year it is that space exploration continues to be a diverse and global endeavor. Putting any nationalism aside, this should give us hope that despite the ups and downs of the economies or space budgets in any given country, that exciting times lie ahead.

It’s hard to start a summary of 2016 in spaceflight without acknowledging that the United States had a major election, with a new President to be inaugurated this week. Any presidential transition leads to uncertainty in the future of government programs, including NASA. Often election years leave the federal government in a continuing resolution. A continuing resolution means that Congress has yet to pass a budget for the year. This leaves NASA and other agencies working under last year’s budget levels, with no increase for inflation or otherwise. The election was a big story for the country in a lot of ways, but NASA and its programs are most likely to feel the effects in 2017, as it tries to continue with business as usual as it waits for new priorities and a new budget.

While 2017 may bring about change (or not), 2016 was another good year for NASA’s flagship space exploration missions. NASA had no major failures last year, just the usual hiccups and challenges (space is hard, after all) and even launched a new planetary exploration mission: OSIRIS-REX, which is on its way to visit an asteroid in 2023. In fact, last year showed that NASA is still a clear leader in planetary exploration, with probes in action all over the solar system. The NASA fleet at Mars remains strong, with two rovers on the surface and two probes in orbit. New Horizons received a mission extension and is on its way to a Kuiper Belt Object rendezvous in a few years. Meanwhile, the probe Juno made orbit at Jupiter and started scientific observations. Unfortunately, Juno has some sticky propellant valves and missed some of its early science orbits when it entered “safe mode.” Fortunately, the probe was brought out of safe mode and completed a Jupiter flyby in December. Most of the probe’s 20-month mission is ahead. Hopefully Juno’s worst days are in the past! Out at Saturn, NASA is still operating the Cassini probe, which has been in orbit since 2004. Sadly, 2017 will see the end of Cassini, as it destroys itself in dramatic fashion, with a dive into Saturn’s atmosphere.

Two other planetary missions of note from other countries had some action last year. ExoMars (a joint mission between ESA and Russia) launched and made it to Mars. However, its companion lander, Schiaparelli, was unable to make it safely to the Martian surface and crash-landed. Thus, NASA remains the sole space agency to have safely brought a spacecraft to the surface of Mars… having done so seven times. Of course, we shouldn’t forget that the Soviet Union is the only country to have ever landed a probe on Venus! A feat which has not been repeated since 1982, and does not appear to be repeated any time soon, as most space agencies focus on asteroids and the outer solar system in their planetary science missions. Venus is not forgotten though, as Japan was able to begin doing science with their Akatsuki orbiter at Venus last year.

Following the theme of “space is hard,” Japan had a pretty devastating failure when their new X-ray telescope Astro-H, or Hitomi, went out of contact after reaching orbit. Fortunately, Japan already has a strong space program and seems mature and professional enough to learn from their mistakes – they released a failure report very quickly after the accident. They currently have an asteroid sample return mission, Hayabusa 2, en route to its target in 2018, which we should all be very excited about. NASA has a strong relationship with JAXA, and will be curating the Hayabusa samples here at the Johnson Space Center when they return.

In human space exploration, the story continues to be the International Space Station. The ISS had an exciting year, partly because NASA and ESA continue to send charismatic astronauts who manage to make the mission feel very personal to all of us following back on Earth. It was a great year for following astronauts on Twitter, including Jeff Williams, Kate Rubins, Tim Kopra, Tim Peake, Scott Kelly, Shane Kimbrough, Thomas Pesquet, and Peggy Whitson. It’s hard to see how this trend will do anything but accelerate, as it’s a cheap and easy way for NASA to connect with the American public and share its mission. Scott Kelly of course returned from space early in the year and retired from NASA on a high note. Since the “year in space” was such a success, both operationally and as a public affairs bonanza, it seems likely NASA will want to try more longer duration expeditions in the future.

On the more nuts and bolts side of things for the ISS, all major mission events went well last year, with both the arrival and installation of the new IDA2 docking adapter and the Bigelow Expandable Activity Module (BEAM). BEAM is an exciting demonstration of where human habitability in Earth orbit may be able to go in the future with inflatable structures. It is exciting to think that the technology may spinoff a private-public partnership with either or both of the companies Bigelow and Axiom to expand the ISS with new large inflatable modules in the future.

The ISS did face some minor setbacks of its own, although not quite as dramatic as in more recent years. Two rocket failures impacted ISS logistics: the SpaceX explosion on the pad in Florida in September and the loss of a Russian Progress resupply mission in December. The good news for NASA was that the SpaceX failure was not an ISS mission, but it meant a delay to the next planned resupply flight of a Dragon capsule, now scheduled for February. ISS is well stocked on supplies thanks to a Japanese resupply mission that also flew in December and the Orbital ATK Antares rocket returning to flight status in October. Even with both Japanese and American rockets able to keep ISS supplied, having the Russian Soyuz rocket family grounded must always make mission managers uneasy. After all, it is the same rocket family that failed in December that also delivers crews to the station. We are not in uncharted territory, as expedition schedules were in limbo after similar accidents in 2011 and 2015. But the ups and downs of the launch vehicle sector are a continual challenge not only for NASA’s ISS program but for dreamers who envision hundreds of people at a time into deep space for colonization. ISS truly is the foothold where we must learn first, and is a great proving ground for those dreamers.

The ISS accounts for over 2,000 person days of space experience a year. The day-in and day-out slog of operating an aging orbital laboratory and learning to live there is slowly but surely preparing us for what comes next. This experience is shared by a partnership of 15 nations (USA, Canada, Russia, Japan, and 11 countries from ESA). However, the rising nation of China finds itself on the outside. Just like in many other sectors, China is finding its own way in space. Last year was a good one for the China National Space Agency (CNSA). Not only did they launch a brand new space station, Tiangong-2 and send a crew of 2 on a 30-day mission to the outpost, they also debuted a brand new Long March 5 heavy lift launcher while matching the US in successful launches on the year – twenty-two. A new medium-lift rocket, Long March 7, also debuted from a new coastal spaceport on Hainan Island, which should give CNSA more flexibility. CNSA’s recent white paper publically published outlining their five-year plan shows ambition but also should be a douse of cold water on people expecting a space race between China and the USA. China certainly has a lot to be proud of as only the third independent nation to place humans in space. But they have a long way to go to put themselves on par with the modern space programs in America and elsewhere. I look forward to their planned lunar sample return mission in 2017, which will give them a lot of “street cred” if they pull it off!

Obviously these are not the only happenings in space exploration and related science areas. I could go on about the exciting developments in exoplanet astronomy, a field that may provide worlds to explore decades or centuries from now, for example. We continue to live in a golden age of space exploration that started with the Galileo probe to Jupiter in the early 90s. For me, 2016 was a testament to the true diversity of the state of space exploration and should serve as a reminder to avoid tunnel vision. There are many facets to how we explore. It’s not just about shiny new rockets and capsules and astronauts, but its also not just about gathering science through a space telescope or a distant robotic probe. All these pieces fit together to move forward the state of our knowledge about the universe together. One of my favorite examples of this from last year was astronaut Kate Rubins’ work on gene sequencing while aboard the ISS. Talk about two sectors that do not traditionally intersect, at least not in the minds of the general public. Diversity – both in the space agencies doing the exploration as well as the type of exploration – will keep the dream alive. I can’t wait to see what we do on ISS this year but I also look forward to news out of China and India as they learn what it takes to fly in space.

The biggest problem with keeping up this steady cadence of exploration is how all these space agencies will pay for it, as the world faces challenging fiscal and security issues. Space is exciting – and important – but it is far from the first priority when it comes to setting budgets in most parts of the world. Fortunately, we have disruptive new players in the launch sector that can help us keep costs down. More on that in my next post.