Archive for the ‘History’ Category

Weekly Links

Down to Earth

After much delay over the last year, the US Senate has finally confirmed former Congressman Jim Bridenstine as the new NASA administrator.

Orbital ATK is designing a new rocket for the Air Force, to be named OmegA.

A new Netflix film, Mercury 13, covers the participation (or lack thereof) of women pilots in America’s early space program.

The United Arab Emirates (UAE) received over 4,000 applicants to be astronauts in their budding space program.

Former cosmonaut Vladimir Lykakhov, who spent 333 days in space, has died.

Scott Altman and Thomas Jones have been inducted into the US Astronaut Hall of Fame.

In Orbit

Two orbital rocket launches since my last post:

Weekly Links

Down to Earth

John Young – astronaut, moonwalker, space shuttle commander – died on Saturday, January 6th at 87 years old.

In Orbit

NASA installed two new external payloads on the ISS, brought up in the SpaceX Dragon: Space Debris Sensor (SDS) and Total Spectral Solar Irradiance Sensor (TSIS).

SpaceX will attempt the first orbital launch of the new year tonight at 8 PM ET. Follow the webcast of the launch at the link below.

Around the Solar System

NASA’s Curiosity rover has confirmed that the variation of methane in the Martian atmosphere appears to be seasonal.

Out There

Astronomer’s have some updated theories about KIC 8462852, or Tabby’s Star. Based on new analysis of recent data, the dimming of the star appears to vary by wavelength, leading researchers to place large clouds of dust at the top of their list.

New analysis of interstellar object ‘Omuamua reveals that it may be more icy than originally assumed.

Some other researchers are trying to determine ‘Omuamua’s origin. They have done some statistical analysis to show that it is likely it came from a white dwarf star system.

Looking Forward

Here is some information about what to expect in 2018 in spaceflight. For starter’s here is Universe Today’s top 2018 astronomy events.

What’s up in solar system exploration in 2018, from The Planetary Society.

NASA’s look at the year ahead:

ESA’s look at the year ahead:

Weekly Links

Down to Earth

Former astronaut Bruce McCandless II died at 80 years old. McCandless was selected as an astronaut in 1966 but didn’t fly until 1984 on STS-41-B. McCandless is probably best known as the first astronaut to do an untethered EVA using the MMU on that first flight. He flew again on STS-31 in 1990.

SpaceX released photos of the first Falcon Heavy rocket being readied for flight, as well as its payload.

The Falcon Heavy rocket was temporarily vertical on the launch pad for fit checks ahead of its January launch.

NASA completed a parachute drop test of the Orion spacecraft in Arizona. The test used only 2 of the 3 parachutes, to validate a parachute failure case.

NASA conducted a water suppression system test at launch pad 39B at KSC in preparation for SLS flights. Check out the video below:

NASA has selected two finalists for a new robotic planetary mission. The mission will either be a comet sample return or a Titan quadcopter.

The new American Girl doll will be an aspiring astronaut, with space suit and all.

In Orbit

There were five orbital rocket launches since my last post, two weeks ago:

  • Dec 23 – SpaceX launched a Falcon 9 rocket from Vandenberg in California, carrying communications satellites for Iridium.
  • Dec 23 – JAXA launched an H-IIA rocket carrying two scientific satellites.
  • Dec 23 – The Chinese space agency launched a Long March 2D rocket carrying an Earth-observing payload.
  • Dec 25 – The Chinese space agency launched a Long March 2C rocket carrying payloads for the Chinese military.
  • Dec 26 – Roscosmos launched a Zenit rocket carrying a communications satellite for Angola.

The Anogosat-1 payload initially had a problem and lost comm with ground control. However, reports in the past day or two indicate that communications have been restored.

The SpaceX launch was their 18th and last of the year – in 2016 they launched only 6 rockets. The launch was just after sunset and created spectacular views from the LA metro area. The video below from a drone is one of the best examples:

Meanwhile, the Soyuz rocket that launched on December 17th arrived at ISS successfully on Wednesday. The ISS crew has now returned to a full complement of 6. One of their Christmas treats was an onboard screening of Star Wars: The Last Jedi.

Also aboard the space station, the Progress 67P freighter undocked from the ISS this week and re-entered the earth’s atmosphere, carrying trash. The freighter will be replaced by 69P in February.

Here are some more pictures from the astronauts aboard the ISS the enjoy on your holiday weekend (as always, follow them on Twitter here).

Weekly Links

Down to Earth

Blue Origin conducted their first New Shepard test flight in over a year. Video below.

Rocket Lab has postponed their Electron test launch to next year.

The President of the United States signed a new space policy initiative.

The USPS will be releasing a stamp featuring an image of astronaut Sally Ride.

In Orbit

Three orbital rocket launches this week:

  • Dec 12 – An ESA Ariane 5 rocket carrying four Galileo navigation satellites
  • Dec 15 – A SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket carrying a Dragon freighter to the ISS (the first launch from pad 40 since the accident last year)
  • Dec 17 – A Soyuz rocket carrying the next crew of three to the ISS: Anton Shkaplerov, Scott tingle, and Norishige Kanai

ISS operations have been very busy! The Dragon cargo arrived this morning with no issues. But before this weekend’s launches, three astronauts left ISS and re-entered Earth’s atmosphere safely. Expedition 53 has come to a close with Randy Bresnik, Paolo Nespoli, and Sergey Ryazansky coming home.

Out There

NASA announced that the Kepler Space Telescope had discovered an 8th planet in the Kepler-90 system, making it tied with our own solar system for most known planets.

Astronomers with Breakthrough Listen are pointing their radio telescope at the interstellar rock ‘Oumuamua in the off-chance it is emitting alien signals.

Weekly Links

Down to Earth

Andy Weir, author of the smash hit The Martian released his second novel, Artemis.

Sierra Nevada released video of last week’s successful glide flight of their Dream Chaser space plan:

A long-lost Omega astronaut watch from the Apollo era has been recovered and returned to the Smithsonian.

In Orbit

The Cygnus cargo freighter that launched last week, arrived at the ISS successfully on November 14.

Two rocket launches last week:

Around the Solar System

A new study in Nature analyzes Pluto’s hazy atmosphere and offers an explanation for the planet being colder than expected ( minus 300 deg F instead of minus 280 deg F).

Out There

A newly discovered exoplanet, Ross 128 b, is only 11 light years away and could be in the habitable zone of the red dwarf star it orbits.

Weekly Links

Down to Earth

Sierra Nevada Corporation completed a successful free-flight landing test of their Dream Chase space plane. The test was the first free-flight since 2013, when they had a landing gear issue during their first test.

XCOR Aerospace, a company that spent over a decade trying to develop their own space plane, has filed for chapter 7 bankruptcy (i.e., their assets will be auctioned off).

Another veteran astronaut of the Apollo era has passed away. Apollo 12 Command Module Pilot Dick Gordon died last week at 88 years old. In addition to orbiting the moon, Gordon flew on the Gemini 11 mission with Pete Conrad and later worked on the Space Shuttle program.

During an engine test last week, SpaceX had an incident with a qualification unit of their new Merlin engine design. The engine basically blew up but no one was injured.

If you get up before dawn tomorrow, you will have a chance to see a conjunction of the planets Venus and Jupiter. They will rise very close together in the East.

In Orbit

Three orbital rocket launches since my last post:

  • November 5 – China launched two new Beidou navigation satellites.
  • November 8 – ESA launched a Vega rocket carrying an earth-observing satellite for Morocco.
  • November 12 – Orbital ATK launched an Antares rocket from Virginia carrying a Cygnus cargo freighter to the International Space Station. It will arrive on station Tuesday morning.

Around the Solar system

You can vote on a name for the small object 2014 MU69, which will be visited by the New Horizons probe in early 2019.

A study gives new explanation to why Saturn’s watery moon Enceladus is so geologically active.

Seventeen Years

Last Thursday, November 2nd, the ISS passed the milestone of 17 years of crewed flight. The launch of Expedition 1, now nearly two decades in the past, was a great way to kick of the new millennium for us space geeks. The significance of that event will only be truly known in retrospect. If our continuous presence continues through the ISS program’s entire length – into the 2020s and hopefully beyond – it will have been a huge achievement. If some future unbuilt space station continues the record, leaving us as a space-faring species for generations to come – the launch of Expedition 1 could perhaps be remembered as a turning point for our species. But that legacy is yet to be written.

I wrote about this same event in this post from 2012, when I had been working at NASA’s Johnson space center for only about 4 years. At the time, those years felt significant – a third of the crewed mission! Now five years later, that share has increased to a number that scares me – half. I have been working on ISS for half of its crewed mission. As long as we are talking numbers, it’s also been about a third of my life.

It scares me because with all of that experience, you might think that I am an expert on spacecraft operations. You probably would think that the ISS operations team as a whole are collectively geniuses in that respect, that we knock down pretty much every problem that comes up with ease. But the truth is we are still exploring. There are still ways to use a space station we have yet to try and experiments we have yet to run. Only in the past few years have we started to master the idea of deploying small satellites from the ISS. We are yet to truly utilize the idea of additive manufacturing in space. On a personal level, there are many lessons about teamwork and leadership and overcoming failure I have yet to learn. When Gene Kranz called mission control a leadership laboratory, it was not hype. All of the leadership experience that was on my resume coming out of college pales in comparison to what I have learned as part of a spaceflight operations team. And that’s because there are still problems to solve that I have gained skills by helping to overcome.

The world has many challenges today, some of them unknown at the time that the ISS mission began at the dawn of this century. The relentless pace of globalization and improvements in communication technology put us at a crossroads with respect to social structures, security, sovereignty, and our pursuit of the truth. To say nothing of humanity’s growing population and challenges we must confront with our changing climate. Some might say things are worse today than in 2000. Others will point out the clear advances in science, medicine, and communication that make life better for many. This up-and-down trend of history is what has made me even more certain that projects like the ISS are fundamentally important to our pursuit of positive solutions.

The ISS does not stand alone. Major multinational scientific and engineering projects existed before the space station and will continue after. One of the best examples is CERN – the European Organization for Nuclear Research. The design and construction of the LHC could only have been made positive with such an impressive peaceful cooperation between many nations. The Human Genome Project is another success story, not to mention the many international large astronomical observatories around the world. I like these projects not just because they make amazing scientific discoveries and foster peaceful international collaboration. I also like how they transcend the changing tides of politics and rise above changing administrations. The ISS, for instance, was conceived in its first version more than 5 US presidential administrations ago. It has been continuously occupied by astronauts now during 4 presidencies.

This longevity should give us hope. Hope that despite the feeling of “one step forward two steps backwards” we sometimes get from following politics, that it is possible for us to build something together that can stand the test of time. The ISS is certainly not the longest lasting example, but the ISS should have special symbolism for us. The ISS is not just a scientific endeavor or an engineering testbed, it also challenges the frontier of human experience (just ask Scott Kelly) while specifically calling us to imagine more and more ambitious voyages into deep space. To take the space stations mission seriously is to have an optimistic outlook.

One of my idols, Bill Nye, says it best when he says that “space exploration brings out the best in us.” It is for this reason that after 9 years here, I wouldn’t want to work anywhere else, and that I hope the ISS can go on for 17 more years. We are far from done learning from this unique laboratory in low Earth orbit. It’s hard to imagine where we will be in ten, twenty, or thirty years. History takes many unpredictable twists and turns. But I hope that the legacy started by the launch of Expedition 1 will go on, and that we never come back down the Earth.

 

Weekly Links

Down to Earth

Space Camp USA, in Huntsville, Alabama, unveiled a new outdoor display of one of the former Shuttle Training Aircraft.

NASA completed some egress testing of the Orion capsule in the Gulf of Mexico.

Here’s a nice short video that will help you get to know Randy Bresnik, who is launching to the ISS next week.

I also enjoyed this short biographical video about Ana Fisher, one of the first American women astronauts.

The latest of NASA’s medium-duration isolation spaceflight analog crews, HERA 13, finished their mission last week.

The independent NASA visitor center in Houston, Space Center Houston, has announced a Kickstarter campaign to help raise additional funds for their project to restore MOCR2 in the Christopher C. Kraft Mission Control Center on the Johnson Space Center campus. MOCR2 is most famous for being the flight control room during the Apollo 11 lunar landing. However, it was used for every Apollo flight starting with Apollo 8, as well as many Space Shuttle missions. In addition to being a site of much triumph (Apollo 8, Apollo 11, STS-1, etc) it was also the active control room during the Apollo 1 fire and the launch of Challenger on STS-51L. Here’s the Kickstarter link. I have already pledged!

Google has posted a brand new “street view” tour from inside the International Space Station! To get to it, navigate to NASA Johnson Space Center on Google Maps and drop the street view icon right on top of Building 9 Space Vehicle Mockup Facility.

In Orbit

Up on the actual ISS, the crew has been busy getting ready for the arrival of the next crew on July 27th. The Progress cargo craft departed with trash on July 20th.

But the NASA crew of Jack Fischer and Peggy Whitson still had time to share their mission with us with a couple informative videos:

Only one rocket launch since my last post on July 9th. Russia launched a Soyuz rocket from Kazakhstan carrying payloads for commercial companies, including an impressive array of small “Dove” satellites for American company Planet. Even more impressively, Planet captured this beautiful footage of the launch from one of their spacecraft already in orbit:

Around the Solar System

To celebrate two years since the New Horizons flyby of Pluto, NASA released this amazing video that simulates a flyover of Pluto using mission imagery.

Speaking of the New Horizons mission, NASA’s amazing airborne observatory SOFIA did a special mission to catch an occultation of 2014 MU69, the Kuiper Belt object that the probe will visit next. Check out Phil Plait’s post on the event for some actual images of the occultation.

Out at Jupiter, NASA’s  Juno probe did a close flyby of the Great Red Spot and returned some amazing images.

Movie Review – Mission Control: The Unsung Heroes of Apollo

It’s not often that a film gets made about your line of work. For most people, this might be a once-in-a-lifetime event. I am lucky: not only am I in a career but also an office building that attracts film productions on an annual basis. Some of the biggest movies of the past couple of years involve NASA astronauts or flight controllers: Gravity, Hidden Figures, The Martian. Nevertheless, it’s still rare for a film to focus directly on the mission operations team here on the ground. Don’t get me wrong, plenty of films get made that show the beauty and wonder of spaceflight. But in all of the IMAX movies (Space Station 3D, Hubble 3D, Journey to Mars, A Beautiful Planet) the flight controllers work quietly off-screen. Astronaut bio-pics are also a popular type of space movie, but of course in those films (In the Shadow of the Moon, The Last Man on the Moon) they are heavy on astronaut interviews and not much else. The last time a movie had NASA flight controllers as central characters was Ron Howard’s Apollo 13, over two decades ago. Finally, the drought is over. The new feature length documentary Mission Control: The Unsung Heroes of Apollo, has captured the soul of Houston’s Mission Control Center in a way not even Apollo 13 could.

Mission Control is based loosely on the book Go, Flight! by Rick Houston. If you read my review of the book, you’ll know that I highly recommend it. Since the film consists entirely of interviews, it diverges from the book in many ways. The two major differences is that fewer people are profiled – only 17 men are interviewed – and the focus changes from the entire 30 year history of the MOCR down to the decade of work on Apollo. The focus gives the film life in that we get to really meet and hear from the flight controllers. In fact, the only audio we hear in the whole film is either the voices of the interviewees, or TV news coverage from the Apollo era. The editing removes all need for narration or a back-and-forth with an interviewer. While some of the interviewees are astronauts (Charlie Duke, Eugene Cernan, and Jim Lovell) most of the time is spent on the flight directors and flight controllers, whom the audience will not have seen before (with the exception of Gene Kranz of course). The men are frank and emotional. We really get a sense of what it was like to figure out how to fly to the moon with no instruction manual.

Mission control movie premier

Disclosure: my wife and i were invited to the premiere, but i was not compensated for this review

Most of the stories told in Mission Control are stories you’ve heard before: the Apollo 1 fire, the Apollo 11 program alarms, and Apollo 13. So you might ask, why do I need to hear these stories told again? Viewers should temper their concerns that they might be bored by the retelling. Instead, you will feel in some cases like you are hearing the stories for the first time. Hearing it from the point of view of the consoles in mission control lends a new perspective and drama that is missing from a History Channel documentary. Not to mention, the filmmakers of Mission Control were able to find a lot of very interesting archival footage that I had never seen before. The video of a technician inspecting the burned out Apollo 1 capsule while taking notes was especially unexpected and haunting.

Mission Control will certainly be enjoyed by general space fans, but it will be loved by anyone who has worked in mission control, from 1961 to today. The filmmakers do a great job of tying the history to the present day, with two brief bonus interviews near the beginning of the film with current flight directors Courtenay McMillan and Ginger Kerrick. McMillan and Kerrick discuss the strong influence of the founders of mission control on the current generation in both emotional and humorous terms (McMillan tells of referring to the movie Apollo 13 and “the guy with the buzz cut and the vest” when explaining her job to friends and family). There was a lot for me to relate to in the film, from descriptions of simulation training to the look of simultaneous fear and satisfaction on Steve Bales face when singled out for recognition by legendary flight director Chris Kraft.

NASA’s Apollo program of the 1960s was an odd moment in time. You have to wonder if those who made the moon landings happen realized the impact they had at the time; did they even realize what was going on in the outside world? Bob Carlton in the movie talks of being so busy that he neglected his family. If he had to do it all over again, he said he wouldn’t. You have to imagine they were so heads down that the social and political turmoil outside may have gone unnoticed. Gene Kranz confirms that they often got consumed with their work while planning for a mission. He says that after moving on to management work during the later Apollo missions, he found himself more appreciative of Apollo’s impact. Ed Fendell relates a story of walking into a diner the morning after the Apollo 11 landing and hearing a man say the only time he had been prouder to be an American was when he landed at Normandy in 1943.

However, we also get a sense that the men of mission control were indeed a bit insulated from anything not NASA related. Jim Lovell himself, when talking about his Apollo 8 mission in December 1968 – the first to the moon – refers to The Christmas Eve broadcast from lunar orbit. This is a familiar story. Apollo 8 was a ray of hope at the end of a very difficult year in America. But rather than point out how Apollo 8 felt uplifting to Americans, Lovell instead says “it all just fell into place,” as if sending three men to the moon – impressive as it was – could simply erase for nearly 17,000 men lost in Vietnam (the worst of any year), the violence at the DNC, and the assassinations of RFK and Dr. King*.

This is the beauty of Mission Control. We get real insight into an era we all love, but from the nuanced and flawed perspectives of 17 men that made it happen. One historical theory of the Apollo Program is that it was a flash in the pan – a combination of leaders, money, fear, talent, and other motivations that can only come together once in a century. A key part of that recipe was Dr. Chris Kraft and his ability to take his vision of a mission control center and bring it to life by collecting an incredible team of engineers from all over the country. They were of varied backgrounds, temperaments, and leadership styles; some were abrasive; some were quiet. But all of them were committed to their task in a singular way. East coast, West coast, Midwest, southern drawl, and even son of Chinese immigrants, it didn’t matter. They were the embodiment of teamwork, giving us a lot to learn from their history.

I had a few nitpicks of the film, mostly to do with some editing choices and the omission of some of my favorite stories. The biggest mistake is that it took someone so long to make Mission Control. While the average age in mission control during Apollo 11 was younger than 30 years old, the men of that era are now approaching an average age of 80, and many important men (Jack Garman, John Llewellyn, and others) have died. Without their voices, we would be missing an important part of the tale of the origins of NASA. I am thankful to author Rick Houston for doing the extensive research that led to the book Go, Flight! and to the filmmakers for making a documentary that has so much meaning to me. Hopefully Mission Control will be successful enough to encourage someone to pursue a similar project for other eras in mission control. There are still many stories to hear from Shuttle, Skylab, Mir, and ISS. Help encourage this kind of filmmaking is appreciated by ordering Mission Control on streaming or buying the DVD (go to missioncontrol.movie). I guarantee you will learn something new!

*See Jeffrey Kluger’s new book Apollo 8 for more on 1968 and NASA’s impact.

 

Weekly Links

Down to Earth

Two very accomplished former NASA astronauts, Dr. Mike Foale and Dr. Ellen Ochoa, were inducted into the Astronaut Hall of Fame.

SpaceX conducted a static fire test in Florida in preparations for their next rocket launch on Thursday, June 1. This launch is a Dragon cargo mission headed to the ISS.

The New Zealand company (but based in Los Angeles), Rocket Lab, had their first launch last week. The Electron rocket was launched as strictly a test flight, and thus carried no payload.

In Orbit

Astronauts Peggy Whitson and Jack Fischer conducted a contingency spacewalk on May 23rd to replace a failed computer outside the ISS. The repair was successful and Peggy Whitson now has the 3rd all-time most hours on spacewalks, having been on 10 EVAs.

Three orbital rocket launches since my last post on May 14th:

  • May 15 – A Falcon 9 rocket launched a communications satellite for Inmarsat from Florida
  • May 18 – An ESA Soyuz rocket launched a communications satellite for SES from French Guiana
  • May 25 – A Russian Soyuz rocket launched a military satellite from Plesetsk in northern Russia

Two astronauts will undock their Soyuz from the ISS later this week and head home. Check out these brief reflections from ESA’s Thomas Pesquet as he prepares to end his mission: