Archive for the ‘Ceres’ Category
Down to Earth
Check out this new video of Blue Origin’s orbital rocket concept, New Glenn.
If you like planetary science and are excited by the idea of future missions to Europa, you should read this detailed post at Ars Technica about how Congressman John Culbertson is working to make it happen.
SpaceX successfully conducted the static fire test for their next rocket launch from Pad 39A at the Kennedy Space Center. A Falcon 9 carrying a commercial satellite will liftoff very early Tuesday morning, March 14th.
Only one orbital rocket launch since my last post. A European Space Agency Vega rocket launched the Earth-observing Sentinel-2B satellite from French Guiana on March 7th.
As usual, there are lots of good pictures from the crew on the ISS to share. Here’s a selection.
— Thomas Pesquet (@Thom_astro) March 8, 2017
— Shane Kimbrough (@astro_kimbrough) March 9, 2017
— Shane Kimbrough (@astro_kimbrough) March 11, 2017
— Thomas Pesquet (@Thom_astro) March 12, 2017
Around the Solar System
New data from the Dawn probe in orbit of Ceres indicates that the “bright spots” are much younger than the craters they inhabit. This is evidence of relatively recent cryovulcanism.
Check out these incredible images of Saturn’s tiny moon Pan. It has a unique shape no one has ever seen before.
This is a pretty cool series of images showing a global dust storm moving across Mars.
Part I – Exploration
Spaceflight, as a many-hundred billion-dollar sector, is a broad and complex industry. Even if we focus in on “exploration” – which is the primary focus of this blog – so that we can ignore military and commercial uses of Earth orbit, we are still left with a global list of activities, studies, missions, and companies. This means there is a lot of stuff going on. 2016 was a busy year with many exciting missions from several different countries. This diversity is great, but makes it hard to boil down the events of last year into a coherent story. Even within NASA, we have the ISS program, with its own highs and lows, and the totally separate and just as successful planetary science portfolio of missions. Those missions keep on going, regardless of whether the most recent cargo delivery has made it to our astronauts in orbit, for instance. Meanwhile, in China, the CNSA is continuing to grow as a nascent space power with new rockets, new launch sites, and a brand new space station. Then there’s Russia, Japan, Europe, India, and more. If any theme can be found at all in the events of last year it is that space exploration continues to be a diverse and global endeavor. Putting any nationalism aside, this should give us hope that despite the ups and downs of the economies or space budgets in any given country, that exciting times lie ahead.
It’s hard to start a summary of 2016 in spaceflight without acknowledging that the United States had a major election, with a new President to be inaugurated this week. Any presidential transition leads to uncertainty in the future of government programs, including NASA. Often election years leave the federal government in a continuing resolution. A continuing resolution means that Congress has yet to pass a budget for the year. This leaves NASA and other agencies working under last year’s budget levels, with no increase for inflation or otherwise. The election was a big story for the country in a lot of ways, but NASA and its programs are most likely to feel the effects in 2017, as it tries to continue with business as usual as it waits for new priorities and a new budget.
While 2017 may bring about change (or not), 2016 was another good year for NASA’s flagship space exploration missions. NASA had no major failures last year, just the usual hiccups and challenges (space is hard, after all) and even launched a new planetary exploration mission: OSIRIS-REX, which is on its way to visit an asteroid in 2023. In fact, last year showed that NASA is still a clear leader in planetary exploration, with probes in action all over the solar system. The NASA fleet at Mars remains strong, with two rovers on the surface and two probes in orbit. New Horizons received a mission extension and is on its way to a Kuiper Belt Object rendezvous in a few years. Meanwhile, the probe Juno made orbit at Jupiter and started scientific observations. Unfortunately, Juno has some sticky propellant valves and missed some of its early science orbits when it entered “safe mode.” Fortunately, the probe was brought out of safe mode and completed a Jupiter flyby in December. Most of the probe’s 20-month mission is ahead. Hopefully Juno’s worst days are in the past! Out at Saturn, NASA is still operating the Cassini probe, which has been in orbit since 2004. Sadly, 2017 will see the end of Cassini, as it destroys itself in dramatic fashion, with a dive into Saturn’s atmosphere.
Two other planetary missions of note from other countries had some action last year. ExoMars (a joint mission between ESA and Russia) launched and made it to Mars. However, its companion lander, Schiaparelli, was unable to make it safely to the Martian surface and crash-landed. Thus, NASA remains the sole space agency to have safely brought a spacecraft to the surface of Mars… having done so seven times. Of course, we shouldn’t forget that the Soviet Union is the only country to have ever landed a probe on Venus! A feat which has not been repeated since 1982, and does not appear to be repeated any time soon, as most space agencies focus on asteroids and the outer solar system in their planetary science missions. Venus is not forgotten though, as Japan was able to begin doing science with their Akatsuki orbiter at Venus last year.
Following the theme of “space is hard,” Japan had a pretty devastating failure when their new X-ray telescope Astro-H, or Hitomi, went out of contact after reaching orbit. Fortunately, Japan already has a strong space program and seems mature and professional enough to learn from their mistakes – they released a failure report very quickly after the accident. They currently have an asteroid sample return mission, Hayabusa 2, en route to its target in 2018, which we should all be very excited about. NASA has a strong relationship with JAXA, and will be curating the Hayabusa samples here at the Johnson Space Center when they return.
In human space exploration, the story continues to be the International Space Station. The ISS had an exciting year, partly because NASA and ESA continue to send charismatic astronauts who manage to make the mission feel very personal to all of us following back on Earth. It was a great year for following astronauts on Twitter, including Jeff Williams, Kate Rubins, Tim Kopra, Tim Peake, Scott Kelly, Shane Kimbrough, Thomas Pesquet, and Peggy Whitson. It’s hard to see how this trend will do anything but accelerate, as it’s a cheap and easy way for NASA to connect with the American public and share its mission. Scott Kelly of course returned from space early in the year and retired from NASA on a high note. Since the “year in space” was such a success, both operationally and as a public affairs bonanza, it seems likely NASA will want to try more longer duration expeditions in the future.
On the more nuts and bolts side of things for the ISS, all major mission events went well last year, with both the arrival and installation of the new IDA2 docking adapter and the Bigelow Expandable Activity Module (BEAM). BEAM is an exciting demonstration of where human habitability in Earth orbit may be able to go in the future with inflatable structures. It is exciting to think that the technology may spinoff a private-public partnership with either or both of the companies Bigelow and Axiom to expand the ISS with new large inflatable modules in the future.
The ISS did face some minor setbacks of its own, although not quite as dramatic as in more recent years. Two rocket failures impacted ISS logistics: the SpaceX explosion on the pad in Florida in September and the loss of a Russian Progress resupply mission in December. The good news for NASA was that the SpaceX failure was not an ISS mission, but it meant a delay to the next planned resupply flight of a Dragon capsule, now scheduled for February. ISS is well stocked on supplies thanks to a Japanese resupply mission that also flew in December and the Orbital ATK Antares rocket returning to flight status in October. Even with both Japanese and American rockets able to keep ISS supplied, having the Russian Soyuz rocket family grounded must always make mission managers uneasy. After all, it is the same rocket family that failed in December that also delivers crews to the station. We are not in uncharted territory, as expedition schedules were in limbo after similar accidents in 2011 and 2015. But the ups and downs of the launch vehicle sector are a continual challenge not only for NASA’s ISS program but for dreamers who envision hundreds of people at a time into deep space for colonization. ISS truly is the foothold where we must learn first, and is a great proving ground for those dreamers.
The ISS accounts for over 2,000 person days of space experience a year. The day-in and day-out slog of operating an aging orbital laboratory and learning to live there is slowly but surely preparing us for what comes next. This experience is shared by a partnership of 15 nations (USA, Canada, Russia, Japan, and 11 countries from ESA). However, the rising nation of China finds itself on the outside. Just like in many other sectors, China is finding its own way in space. Last year was a good one for the China National Space Agency (CNSA). Not only did they launch a brand new space station, Tiangong-2 and send a crew of 2 on a 30-day mission to the outpost, they also debuted a brand new Long March 5 heavy lift launcher while matching the US in successful launches on the year – twenty-two. A new medium-lift rocket, Long March 7, also debuted from a new coastal spaceport on Hainan Island, which should give CNSA more flexibility. CNSA’s recent white paper publically published outlining their five-year plan shows ambition but also should be a douse of cold water on people expecting a space race between China and the USA. China certainly has a lot to be proud of as only the third independent nation to place humans in space. But they have a long way to go to put themselves on par with the modern space programs in America and elsewhere. I look forward to their planned lunar sample return mission in 2017, which will give them a lot of “street cred” if they pull it off!
Obviously these are not the only happenings in space exploration and related science areas. I could go on about the exciting developments in exoplanet astronomy, a field that may provide worlds to explore decades or centuries from now, for example. We continue to live in a golden age of space exploration that started with the Galileo probe to Jupiter in the early 90s. For me, 2016 was a testament to the true diversity of the state of space exploration and should serve as a reminder to avoid tunnel vision. There are many facets to how we explore. It’s not just about shiny new rockets and capsules and astronauts, but its also not just about gathering science through a space telescope or a distant robotic probe. All these pieces fit together to move forward the state of our knowledge about the universe together. One of my favorite examples of this from last year was astronaut Kate Rubins’ work on gene sequencing while aboard the ISS. Talk about two sectors that do not traditionally intersect, at least not in the minds of the general public. Diversity – both in the space agencies doing the exploration as well as the type of exploration – will keep the dream alive. I can’t wait to see what we do on ISS this year but I also look forward to news out of China and India as they learn what it takes to fly in space.
The biggest problem with keeping up this steady cadence of exploration is how all these space agencies will pay for it, as the world faces challenging fiscal and security issues. Space is exciting – and important – but it is far from the first priority when it comes to setting budgets in most parts of the world. Fortunately, we have disruptive new players in the launch sector that can help us keep costs down. More on that in my next post.
Down to Earth
In late June, Orbital ATK test fired the second quality test solid rocket booster for SLS development:
Mike Suffredini, former ISS Program Manager, is now working for contractor SGT, Inc. and announced at a recent NewSpace conference his intentions to develop a commercial space station.
NASA and Apple announced a collaboration to create music inspired by the Juno mission.
A team of astronauts from five different nations completed a multi-night caving expedition in the Sardinia region of Italy. The project is run by ESA and is an spaceflight analog but also has real exploration objectives.
Here are all the rocket launches since the last post on June 24th:
- June 25 – A Chinese Long March 7 rocket debuted from a new launch pad on Hainan Island. The rocket was carrying a demonstration for a future manned capsule design.
- June 29 – Another Chinese rocket launched, this one with less information available about the payload.
- July 7 – A Soyuz rocket launched from Kazakhstan carrying three crew members to the ISS.
The Soyuz crew successfully docked to the ISS on Friday night after 2 days in orbit.
Around the Solar System
NASA’s Juno probe arrived in Jupiter orbit last Monday, July 4th.
Several NASA missions received their official mission extensions. New Horizons was officially approved to continue its mission to the 2019 rendezvous with 2014 MU69 in the Kuiper Belt (we have 3 years to come up with a better name). The Dawn mission at Ceres was extended but it will stay in orbit there instead of moving on to another asteroid.
The Curiosity rover on Mars briefly went into safe mode but has since been recovered.
Down to Earth
The US Senate has started putting together their version of the 2017 budget, including appropriations for NASA.
The satellite internet startup OneWeb has announced they will build a factory in Florida.
China’s unmanned research capsule, SJ-10, successfully ended last week when it landed in Mongolia under parachute.
SpaceX has moved their latest recovered Falcon 9 booster back to their hangar in Florida. Follow the link for some pictures and video.
The European Space Agency has been trying to launch an Earth-observing satellite, Sentinel-1B, since Friday. They have been delayed twice by weather but they hope for a successful launch later today at just after 5 PM Eastern.
ISS astronaut Tim Peake virtually ran the London marathon this morning.
— ESA Operations (@esaoperations) April 24, 2016
Around the Solar System
The New Horizons team has officially submitted their Kuiper Belt Extended Mission (KEM) to have the probe flyby the distant object MU69.
Beautiful pictures from Dawn’s low-altitude “mapping orbit” at Ceres give is a good idea of what’s really going on in those “bright spots” on the asteroid.
And here’s an amazing shadowless view of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko.
Down to Earth
NASA’s Dawn mission was awarded the prestigious Collier Trophy.
Former NASA astronaut Janet Kavandi is the new director of Glenn Research Center in Ohio.
WIRED sent a guy to spend a day at JSC learning what it’s like to be an astronaut. The short video is fun and probably fairly informative for non-space geeks.
Lots of launch activity in the past two weeks. Of the five total launches, I’ll get the two less interesting ones out of the way first: on March 13, a Russian Earth observation mission launched from Baikonaur and then on March 24, a Russian military mission launched from Plesetsk. Both were on Soyuz rockets.
The other three launches are much more interesting. First, on March 14 the much anticipated ExoMars mission launched on a Proton rocket from Baikonaur. The Mars exploration mission is currently safely in solar orbit on its way to an October rendezvous.
On March 18, another Soyuz rocket launched from Baikonaur, but this time carrying 3 people. Aleksey Ovchinin, Oleg Skripochka, and Jeff Williams had an uneventful launch, rendezvous, and docking with the ISS. Or at least, as uneventful as those sorts of things go!
Lastly, an Atlas V rocket launched from Florida on March 23 carrying a Cygnus cargo freighter. Cygnus, named the S.S. Rick Husband by Orbital ATK, arrived (also uneventfully) at ISS on Saturday morning.
— Tim Kopra (@astro_tim) March 26, 2016
— Tim Kopra (@astro_tim) March 27, 2016
Unfortunately, it sounds like Japan’s Astro-H X-ray observatory may have been lost only weeks after it launched in February.
Around the Solar System
Check out this picture of the tallest mountains on Saturn’s moon Titan.
Here’s some awesome new close-up imagery of the “bright spots” on Ceres.
Newly released analysis of New Horizons data indicates that Pluto may have had periods of high atmospheric pressure in the past, which allowed liquid nitrogen to flow in rivers on its surface.
The last year was full of spacey goodness. Some things were expected – even long anticipated – like space probes Dawn and New Horizons arriving at their targets. Other things were a complete surprise, like the loss of SpaceX’s seventh commercial flight to ISS and the discovery of flowing water on the surface of Mars. All-in-all, there was a lot to follow and talk about. Thus, I am putting together one or more “year in review” blog posts to give my perspective on what has happened and what’s to come. In the meantime, you can enjoy other people’s thoughts of 2015 in spaceflight through the links I have gathered below. Happy new year!
As usual, I love to lean on the “year in spaceflight” pages on Wikipedia. The folks that put these together do a thorough job. If we look at the 2015 in spaceflight page, we see that the human race is maintaining our high flight rate, with 82 successful orbital launches out of 87 attempts. These numbers have been steadily growing for years. Here is the last decade’s successful launches numbers, starting with 2005: 52, 62, 63, 66, 73, 70, 78, 72, 77, 88, 82. As I wrote in last week’s Weekly Links post, Russia had the most launches with 26 and their Soyuz rocket is by far the most dominant, at 17 launches. However, their two failures this year make it hard to call Soyuz both the most dominant and most reliable. China launches 19 of their Long March family of rockets with no failures.
Using the “list of spaceflight records” we can see some changes in the list for total time in space. Most notably, Gennady Padalka spent 167 days on ISS during Expedition 43/44, his 5th spaceflight, to put him at the top spot for most spaceflown human ever. He has spent 879 days of his life in space. Also notable is Anton Shkaplerov, who returned to Earth during Expedition 43 and is at the 32 spot, Oleg Kononenko, who returned during Expedition 45 and holds the 13 spot with 533 days, and Yuri Malenchenko and Sergey Volkov who are currently in space and hold the 7 and 31 spots respectively.
The other notable record that was broken this year is “longest single flight by a woman” (which is on the list of spaceflight records page), broken this year by Samantha Cristoforetti, partly because her crew got stuck on ISS a little bit longer after the loss of a Progress resupply flight in May.
AmericaSpace, but on planetary science.
AmericaSpace’s compilation video of launches:
And here’s a series of four year in review posts from NASA Spaceflight:
Government Agency PR
NASA’s summary of 2015. With video below.
NASA’s top 15 images of Earth from ISS (if you are a real photography or geography nut, you will want to click “read more” on each picture).
Top Space Stories of 2015
Down To Earth
Here are some new high resolution images from the SpaceX booster flyback landing last week.
And here is a nice shot of the booster being returned to the SpaceX launch complex.
United Launch Alliance has ordered more of the RD-180 engines that power its Atlas rockets. This is the Russian-built engine that has been causing political controversy since early 2014, since American politicians understandably don’t want our military satellites dependent on a geopolitical adversary’s technology. The new engines are only planned to be used for civil and commercial launches.
Meanwhile, the USAF awarded a bunch of money to several companies for propulsion development so that RD-180s won’t have to be purchased in the future.
Components of ESA’s ExoMars mission have arrived at the launch site in Kazakhstan. Launch is coming up quick in March!
Russia’s space agency, Roscosmos, was dissolved by law this week under the ongoing reorganization of the space industry going on in that country.
Oak Ridge in Tennessee has produced the first Plutonium-238 in decades. This non-weapons grade nuclear fuel is needed for the RTG power sources of deep space missions.
Only two launches since my last post on December 22nd: a Russian Proton rocket* with a communications satellite and a Chinese rocket with an Earth observation satellite. With no apparent planned launches for the rest of the year (according to my favorite Wikipedia page), that leaves the yearly totals as seen below, with Russia at 25 successful launches and China and the US tied at 18. If SpaceX had launched as many Falcon 9s as they had hoped this year, then the US may have matched or surpassed Russia’s numbers for the first time since probably 2003*. Comments from Musk at a recent press conference indicate he hopes for 12 launches in 2016. We will see.
*The Proton is the rocket that seemed to blow up every other launch a couple of years ago. Although there has been only been one failure every year since 2012, the failure rate has remained about the same since 2010, with 4 out of 32 launches failed 2010 to 2012 and 3 out of 26 from 2013 to 2015.
**In 2003, Orbital Sciences was operating the Pegasus rocket (four launches), ILS was launching out of both Florida and Kazakhstan (I counted based on launch site) and Boeing and Lockheed had yet to merge as ULA. USA outscored Russia by 23 to 21 that year by my count.
Around the Solar System
Here’s a cool new “self-portrait” panorama from the Curiosity rover on Mars.
Here are some new images from Dawn’s new low mapping orbit at Ceres.
Down to Earth
A “topping off” ceremony was held at Space Launch Complex 41 in Florida, which will be the launchpad for the Boeing “commercial crew” capsule that will send astronauts to the ISS.
The crew of Soyuz TMA-17M undocked from the ISS and landed back on Earth this past Friday. Here’s a cool shot of the landing site after the recovery team had arrived (click to see larger on Flickr).
The crew of Oleg Kononenko, Kimiya Yui, and Kjell Lindgren were in good spirits upon extraction from their capsule, despite the subfreezing temperatures on the Kazakh steppe. Here are some shots of them smiling just after touchdown (yes, I’m calling that a “smile” from Oleg).
Over the weekend, the new Soyuz rocket for the next ISS crew to launch was raised on the launch pad in Kazakhstan in anticipation for a Tuesday launch.
(All photos in the section above from the NASA Flickr stream)
Before the TMA-17M crew left ISS, they helped out Commander Scott Kelly with the capture and berthing of the new Cygnus cargo craft, also known as the SS Deke Slayton. It is a beautiful spacecraft.
— Scott Kelly (@StationCDRKelly) December 9, 2015
— Sergey Volkov (@Volkov_ISS) December 9, 2015
In launch news, there were three launches this past week: one Chinese and two Russian. All communication or Earth-observing satellites. One of the Russian launches was a Zenit rocket carrying a weather satellite. This is reportedly going to be the last launch of the Ukranian built Zenit. The other launches were a Russian Proton rocket with a communications satellite and a Chinese Long March 3B/E carrying a communications satellite.
In the coming week, it looks like there may be several more launches, but he most exciting should be the Soyuz crewed launch and then hopefully the Falcon 9 return-to-flight by SpaceX next Saturday. It looks like Russia, USA, and China may be in a race for “most launches in 2015″ as we head into the last two weeks of the year, at least according to this running count from Wikipedia:
Around the Solar System
Researchers with the Dawn mission, in orbit of dwarf planet Ceres, believe that the “bright spots” on the asteroids surface could be caused by salty water which makes its way to the surface and then sublimates.
Because it’s just so darn beautiful, check out this picture of Saturn’s Moon Prometheus taken by Cassini last week during a close flyby:
Down to Earth
I love this new “hedgehog” rover concept, designed for low gravity environments like asteroids.
SpaceX released new imagery of the redesigned interior of their crewed Dragon capsule.
Tonight, the Expedition 44 crew of Gennady Padalka, Andreas Mogensen, and Aidyn Aimbetov will undock from the International Space Station and land in Kazakhstan. Follow along on NASA TV, with undocking at 5:29 PM Eastern.
During his short stay on ISS, Mogensen has been very busy trying to get as much science and engineering done for the European Space Agency as he can, including remotely operating a robot on the ground from space! Very cool.
Here’s a quick video from Mogensen about living in ESA’s Columbus module on ISS.
Early Friday morning, the European Space Agency launched a Soyuz rocket with two Galileo satellites into orbit. Galileo is ESA’s analog to the American launched GPS navigation system. Galileo is up to 10 satellites in orbit, but it will take many more to have a complete system (GPS has 31 active satellites).
Check out this shot of the ISS passing in front of the sun.
And you have to love this timelapse of aurora as seen from the ISS.
— Scott Kelly (@StationCDRKelly) September 7, 2015
Around the Solar System
Check out the new high resolution imagery from the New Horizons Pluto probe, just downlinked this week.
There is also new higher resolution imagery of the bright spots on dwarf planet Ceres.
Astronomers have found the most distant galaxy ever detected, at 13.2 billion light years away.
Down To Earth
Last Monday, SpaceX announced preliminary findings related to the loss of a Falcon 9 rocket and its Dragon cargo mission last month. Here’s the companies official statement on their investigation so far. They have found that a structural support (or “strut”) holding up a pressurant tank in the second stage failed. Elon Musk hopes a delay of only a few months to their manifest.
Tony Antonelli, who piloted two space shuttle missions, has retired from the astronaut office.
The Smithsonian Institution has started a new Kickstarter campaign called “Reboot the Suit” to raise money to restore Neil Armstrong’s moonsuit. The restoration is planned to be completed in time for a new exhibit for the 50th anniversary of Apollo 11 in 2019. I pledged!
Three launches from the Earth’s three spacefaring nation’s this past week: first, a Russian Soyuz rocket launched from Kazakhstan on July 22nd, followed a few hours later by a successful docking to ISS. The crew is now back up to full strength of 6, with the addition of Oleg Kononenko, Kimiya Yui, and Kjell Lindgren. Lindgren and Yui are on Twitter, so you should follow my “people in space” Twitter list.
Second, a Delta IV rocket launched from Florida on July 23rd. The mission delivered a new military communications satellite to orbit.
China also had a successful orbital launch last week. A Long March 3B delivered two navigation satellites to orbit on July 25th.
Around the Solar System
New pictures from the New Horizons’ Pluto flyby! Check out the new views of small moons Nix and Hydra.
Also, check out this view of the dark side of Pluto, with the sun lighting up its thin nitrogen atmosphere!
Not to mention they discovered nitrogen glaciers!
Closer to home, at Ceres, the Dawn spacecraft has discovered evidence of a “haze” in Occator crater. This is the large crater with several “bright spots” in its center.
JAXA is accepting applications to choose a name for asteroid 1999 JU3 which will be visited by their Hayabusa-2 spacecraft.
NASA announced the discovery of Kepler-452b, a small planet around a Sun-like star about 1,400 light years distant. This is the most similar planet in size and circumstance to Earth that we have yet found, but it still has 1.6 times Earth’s diameter (mass, and thus surface gravity, unknown). However, the fact that it is so small and in the habitable zone, makes it an awesome discovery.