Archive for the ‘astronauts’ Category

Weekly Links

The two weeks since my last “links” post have been very busy with mostly good news. The best news being a number of successful rocket launches (two of them space exploration related), helping to make up for the bad taste in everyone’s mouth from the loss of the Antares rocket back in October. I tried counting how many rockets have launched from Earth this year using this launch log at Spaceflight Now, but its so many that I decided to go with the highly scientific “a lot”.

Down to Earth

Let’s quickly get a few boring but important things out of the way. We’ve got a couple of space budget updates from around the world.

First, economic sanctions from the EU on Russia may make it hard for Roscosmos to live up to their current ambitions.

At the European Space Agency ministerial meeting, a few key decisions were made. First they agreed to start development on the new Ariane 6 rocket, which will be a direct competitor with a few American made launchers including those from SpaceX. The Ariane 6 will replace the current Ariane 5, which launches European communications satellites, as well as the ATV to ISS. Secondly, ESA has only agreed to fund their commitment to ISS until 2017. It is assumed at their next meeting in 2016 the funding will be extended until at least 2020.

Back in the USA, Congress has passed a 2015 federal spending bill (in both houses) that includes a boost for NASA. Here is how the bill is summarized by The Planetary Society:

The total amount provided for NASA in this bill is a very solid $18.01 billion. That’s about $549 million above the President’s request for this year and $364 million above last year. This extra money supports increases to critical programs without raiding others.

The bill still needs to be signed by the President. Follow the link above for a more detailed breakdown. Parabolic Arc has the same data tabulated.

The spending bill also includes $20 million of federal funding to repair the Wallops Island launch pad that was damaged in the Orbital Antares rocket explosion in October. This is an interesting provision because $20 million was the initial assessment of what it would cost for all the repairs – meaning it will be completely paid for with federal money.

Speaking of Orbital Sciences, an announcement was made on December 9th that Orbital will be buying a couple of United Launch Alliance Atlas V rockets to fulfill their CRS contract with ISS. Orbital needs to buy someone else’s rocket to fill the gap while they figure out how to upgrade their Antares rocket to no longer use the AJ26 engine, which we can presume is implicated in the rocket failure. Even with the ULA deal, it seems the next launch of cargo aboard a Cygnus spacecraft won’t be until late 2015.

In Orbit

Of course, the big news, big enough to get coverage in all the major news outlets in one way or another, was the launch and successful recovery of NASA’s Orion spacecraft on its first unmanned test flight. The EFT-1 mission launched one day late, on Friday, December 5th, but other than that the flight pretty much went perfectly. There was a big of a glitch with the airbags at splashdown (they didn’t all deploy), which seems to be the only noteworthy problem. Here is a nice photo essay of the mission. Regardless of what you think of NASA’s current programs and roadmap for the future, congratulations are deserved by the whole team – especially my colleagues in Flight Operations – who worked on the mission. It is definitely worth getting excited for the next flight, EM-1, but it sure is a long way away.

While I don’t usually write about DoD launches, the Atlas V launch from Vandenberg Air Force Base on December 12th was notable because of the time of the launch. The Friday night launch, after sunset at 7:19 PM PST, lit up the sky all the way in Los Angeles, as evidenced by Twitter. It’s just too bad that people aren’t better informed so that the could have known they had an opportunity to see a rocket launch!

Aboard the International Space Station, the new Made In Space printer is still churning out test prints. Since I last wrote, they have created a jar with a screw-on lid and a ratchet handle for a socket wrench (although I’m not sure it actually “ratchets”?). Here’s ISS Commander Butch Wilmore showing off the “honey jar”:

Coming up on the ISS before Christmas, the next SpaceX Dragon cargo resupply will be launching this Friday, December 19th. Rendezvous will be on Sunday, December 21st, sometime in the morning. Here’s some details about press conferences and NASA TV coverage.

Lastly, if you want to keep up with what’s going on on the space station, you should be following Terry Virts and Samantha Cristoforetti on Twitter. Cristoforetti is also active on Google+ where she posts logbook updates. If you want details about specifically what science the astronauts are up to, AmericaSpace has a nice week recap.

Around the Solar System

As usual, there is a lot of activity all over the solar system, since humanity seems to have spacecraft everywhere! Unfortunately, that won’t last forever. In the first weeks (or months if we are lucky) of 2015 we will lose both our only active spacecraft at Mercury, NASA’s MESSENGER, and our only active spacecraft at Venus, ESA’s Venus Express. Both spacecraft are running low on fuel. MESSENGER may be able to do another boost in January to keep it from crashing until the Spring, but Venus Express will not be so lucky.

Back to some good news: on December 3rd, JAXA (that’s the Japanese space agency) launched the Hayabusa-2 probe. Hayabusa-2 is a follow-on mission to the successful Hayabusa sample return mission that visited asteroid Itokawa. Check out the launch replay below.

With all these great launches, we are looking to finish out 2014 right, especially if SpaceX gets Dragon to the ISS next weekend.

Elsewhere in the solar system, the Mars rovers have been quietly carrying on their missions. Opportunity is still exploring the rim of the large Endeavour crater, despite some flash memory problems with the rover. Opportunity recently passed 41 kilometers on the odometer and will hit 11 years on Mars in 2015. On the other side of the red planet, Curiosity is busy looking at rock sediments at Mount Sharp. NASA announced earlier this month that Curiosity has discovered that Gale Crater, which contains the central peak of Mount Sharp, once contained a lake – meaning standing water. This is significant in that it means conditions on ancient Mars were warm enough, and had sufficient atmospheric pressure, to maintain a more permanent water cycle.

Speaking of water, Rosetta results recently released by ESA show that the isotope of water found on comet 67P does not match the isotope found on Earth. This means that if Earth’s water did come from comets, it was not the same kind of comet at 67P.

Because it’s Cool

And of course I need to share this awesome video.

Interestellar: the return of hard sci-fi (or it never left)?

This post is overdue. Interstellar, a huge success of a film, both critically and financially, has been out for almost a month. It has a rating of 8.9 out of 10 based on user reviews at IMDb and holds the #15 spot on the IMDb top 250. By this point, if you are a fan of space or sci-fi films, you have likely already found the time to see it.

I am not going to write a point-by-point plot breakdown of Interstellar, nor am I going to pick apart the science of the movie. Those kinds of reviews, of varying harshness and quality, have already been written variously by fans and detractors of the film. Such a post by me wouldn’t sway your choice to see the movie anyway. Instead, I’d like to take a look at what appears to be a changing trend in the style and content of sci-fi movies in the 21st century, and what the recent success of movies like Gravity and Interstellar may mean for the future of science fiction films. Is there a trend back towards hard sci-fi?

Wikipedia’s entry on “Hard Science Fiction” defines the genre as:

Hard science fiction is a category of science fiction characterized by an emphasis on scientific accuracy or technical detail, or on both… The heart of the “hard SF” designation is the relationship of the science content and attitude to the rest of the narrative, and (for some readers, at least) the “hardness” or rigor of the science itself. One requirement for hard SF is procedural or intentional: a story should try to be accurate, logical, credible and rigorous in its use of current scientific and technical knowledge about which technology, phenomena, scenarios and situations that are practically and/or theoretically possible.

So which space-based sci-fis are hard sci-fis? A couple classic examples most people might be familiar with would be 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968), Silent Running (1972), The Andromeda Strain (1971), and Solaris (1972).  These films were released right around the peak of the Space Race and the Apollo Program. The public could see and understand the romance and drama of  a simpler space exploration story without marauding aliens, warp drive, or laser weapons.

Another tempting franchise to include, Star Trek, was clearly influenced by the optimism of space exploration in the ’60s, as well. Star Trek, like the films listed above, was also in stark contrast to the earlier space operas that were little different than a cowboy adventure, only set in space. However, we can’t call Star Trek “hard” – after all, it has the warp drives and laser weapons I just ruled out. Star Trek has the veneer of science-focused storytelling, but lacks the “…credible and rigorous… use of current scientific and technical knowledge…”. However, in today’s era of the impossible physics of superhero and Transformers movies, which are clearly not science-based, the Star Trek of the 1960s sure looks sciencey by comparison.

So where do modern films fall on this spectrum? When you consider the most popular science fiction films of the ’90s and 2000s (Armaggedon, Star Wars, The Avengers, The Matrix, District 9, Jurassic Park, Independence Day, Men in Black, Starship Troopers, Guardians of the Galaxy), there sure is a lot of fantasy going around. Even a little bit of science could go a long way. So is Interstellar really “hard”, or is it just another space fantasy pretending to know what it is talking about? Let’s look at some of the key science or engineering points of the film to get a feel for its realism (note, spoilers below):

  1. The world may have trouble feeding a growing population in the near future, and may suffer a population collapse as a result: This is plausible and backed up by a growing scientific consensus, due to climate change and population growth.
  2. NASA can’t work miracles: The film depicts NASA plausibly – having a hard time getting stuff done in a reduced budget environment. They can’t build the large space stations they want to and instead have to launch rockets and spacecraft of modest size to carry out their missions.
  3. Worm holes exist and it is possible to travel through them: Both facts are theoretically possible, mathematically.
  4. It takes a very long time for a spaceship to get from Earth to Saturn: Yup.
  5. Time dilation would occur on a planet orbiting a large black hole: this is the meat of why the film producers hired noted physicist Kip Thorne as a consultant. The water planet orbiting Gargantua was very plausible.
  6. Such a planet would have huge tidal waves: No. The planet would likely be tidally locked. There would not be a moving tide on the planet.
  7. There can be such a thing as frozen clouds on an alien planet: I’m not really sure what a “frozen cloud” even is.
  8. Don’t open an airlock if your spacecraft isn’t properly docked: plausible results here! And no sound of the explosion in space.
  9. High spin-rate spacecraft docking: not likely possible at the number of RPMs depicted in the film. But the characters are at least shown experiencing high-Gs in the scene.

That’s just a sample of some of the things I noticed (items 1, 3, 5, and 6 backed up by people smarter than me). So it seems clear that the filmmakers did make an effort to get many things right in Interstellar, while at the same time taking some creative license for the sake of stunning visuals or dramatic effect. Interstellar is probably somewhere in the middle-ground; farther towards “hard” than  Star Trek, but not at the level of 2001: A Space Odyssey, which  many people have been comparing Interstellar to, due to certain plot elements.

So, this is why the definition of hard sci-fi I quoted above mentions “trying” to be accurate. If we are going to be strict about the definition and say a hard sci-fi must be perfectly scientifically accurate, it may be very difficult to find a movie that is a true hard sci-fi tale. So, in order to draw the line somewhere – and since this is my blog – I am going to loosen up my definition of “hard sci-fi” but give more parameters than just “trying” to be accurate. Let’s define a hard sci-fi as having astronauts instead of adventurers (see, Dave of 2001 instead of Kirk of Star Trek), having realistic spacecraft technology (for example, artificial gravity is only possible through centrifugal force), and no unreasonable alien encounters. I like to think of these kinds of movies as “astronaut movies” – they are the ones that feel realistic to guys like me that work at NASA.

Using this definition, I have compiled a list of all the astronaut movies since Apollo 13 in 1995 (the pinnace of what a successful astronaut movie can be). By my count, there have been about 20 movies since Apollo 13 that have either been fair “astronaut movies” or have come close, but fail my smell test in some way. I have colored films that are clear successes in red and indie films (for which a flop/hit designation based on gross sales is meaningless) as blue. Three of the other movies made more money than they cost but not enough for me to firmly declare them as hits.

Screen shot 2014-12-09 at 9.30.41 PM

Note: Budget estimates taken from IMDB.com and gross sales figures from BoxOfficeMojo.com

Two things stand out to me in this data. The first is that even when we include the “fantasy” movies that are almost astronaut movies, but not quite, you still see a long drought of mainstream successful films of about 10 years or more. Second, in recent years there is a ramp-up in “indie” films in the astronaut genre, which is promising if you were a fan of MoonSunshine, or Europa Report.

Leaving in the three campy films of Armageddon, Deep Impact, and Space Cowboys makes the story look a bit better. But if you don’t like camp, then there really was a true drought of a good mainstream astronaut based film for nearly two decades. By all accounts, Prometheus (which I have not seen) is so full of non-scientific plot elements, not to mention aliens, that I probably shouldn’t include it. But since it features astronauts in spacesuits, I thought it was close enough to my definition to at least get a comparison.

It seems to me that Gravity and Interstellar signal a true return of hard sci-fi films to the mainstream. With Ridley Scott currently working on The Martian, starring Matt Damon along with other big names, the trend is going to continue for now. And if The Martian stays true to the source material, it really will be the hardest astronaut film since Apollo 13.

Those of us who pride ourselves on being nerds or geeks and have heard of Sunshine, Europa Report or Gattaca, or liked Red Planet, would be justified in saying that hard sci-fi never left film, it just went underground. But the fact that you have seen all those great films does not affect the public consciousness; they are not becoming a part of culture. What becomes culture is a mainstream movie that everyone has heard of and seen. It may seem silly, but a film like Gravity can do a simple thing like remind Americans that their tax dollars are paying for an International Space Station. A film like Interstellar may get a kid interested in black holes and she may voluntarily read some physics books. Why not get a little science along with your entertainment?

A good sci-fi film is still all about entertainment first, hard or soft. But a good hard sci-fi film usually has the side effect of being more nuanced, due to it being anchored in reality. This nuance allows such films, usually, to explore real life themes that can be both social and scientific. At a time when the public’s commitment to our space program (be it manned or not) is unclear, films that show that the simple act of exploration is both exciting and hip can go a long way to getting the public back onboard with why we have a space program in the first place. So, despite the fact that I only give Interstellar  a 7 out of 10 – and I don’t think it is anywhere near the 15th best movie of all time – I say it is an awesome adventure ride that deserves the hype. The film should be seen both for its visuals and the questions it poses:

What cost are you willing to pay for the future of humanity? Is man’s nature inherently selfish? Can love of family overcome that inherent nature? Or does love simply lead to more selfish acts? Is humanity worth saving if in the restarting, cultural history is lost?

These kinds of questions are the hallmark of a film that makes an effort to reflect reality back at us, rather than let us escape into fantasy. This is the kind of space adventure that will get people talking and thinking. I say give us more! Go see Interstellar.

Weekly Links

I am in between a string of four “Orbit 1″ (meaning, “graveyard”) shifts, but I wanted to drop in to give a quick space news roundup, especially since three human being are launching to space aboard a Soyuz rocket tomorrow!

Down to Earth

The crew of the TMA13-M Soyuz returned to Earth successfully in the early hours of November 10th after an uneventful undocking from the ISS. Maxim Surayev, Alexander Gerst, and Reid Wiseman are all back in their respective countries recuperating and debriefing. Congratulations to Expedition 41 on a successful mission.

On Wednesday, November 19, a new British space project known as Lunar Mission One was announced and they rolled out their Kickstarter campaign. The mission is noble in its goals – crowdfund a private mission to do basic lunar science, while also promising its backers a unique opportunity to be  part of a major time capsule to be buried many meters deep on the lunar south pole. The science of course involves drilling deep into the moon – never done before – hence they can then fill in the hole with a time capsule afterwards. They are already halfway to their crowdfunding goal of 600,00 GBP.

I am still very skeptical of these kinds of projects, which are in vogue amongst ambitious space enthusiasts lately. There have been many other similar crowdfunding projects launched (Mars One, Arkyd, Northern Light, Uwingu, etc) but none have yet proved that something so expensive and technically challenging can be successfully funded in this way. Elizabeth Howell gave us a bit of an understatement when she said in her Universe Today piece about the project that “…success is not necssarily a guarantee.” Best of luck to them.

Happily, Chris Hadfield has been allowed to repost his Space Oddity cover which he filmed aboard ISS during Expedition 35. Enjoy!

Lastly, if you’re into the more meat and potatoes discussion of the space industry, Space News has a good article about “5 companies to watch”, which includes discussion of Virgin Galactic and Orbital Sciences, among others.

In Orbit

Last week, ISS commander and US astronaut, Butch Wilmore, installed the new “Made in Space” 3D printer in the orbiting laboratory.

This weekend, on Sunday, November 23rd, the crew of TMA15-M Soyuz will launch from Baikonaur and arrive at ISS a few hours later. The second half of the Expedition 42 crew is made up of Anton Shkaplerov, Samantha Cristoforetti, and Terry Virts. Cristoforetti will be joining cosmonaut Yelena Serova who is already onboard, bringing the ISS female contingent up to two for the first time in a while. During Expedition 26, Cady Coleman was joined by Space Shuttle Mission Specialist Nicole Stott during STS-133 to mark the last time two women were onboard the ISSat the same time; that was in early 2011. The last time two women were ISS crewmates was during Expedition 24 in the summer of 2010: Shannon Walker and Tracy Caldwell Dyson.

Around the Solar System

A dedicated observing campaign using the Hubble Space Telescope was able to identify potential KBOs (Kuiper Belt Objects) for the New Horizons probe to visit after its encounter with Pluto next year. I’m very glad for them that they got the Hubble observing time! I was starting to worry that they would never find a target. New Horizons may very well be the biggest space story of 2015.

Of course, the biggest news of the last two weeks was that on Wednesday, November 12: the European Space Agency’s Rosetta probe deployed the Philae lander, which successfully touched down on the surface of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. This is a huge milestone in humanity’s exploration of the solar system. Unfortunately, the lander’s harpoons, which were meant to help Philae get a firm grip on the comet, which has very low gravity, did not fire as planned. Thus, when Philae made contact with the comet, it bounced off the surface and landed again, two hours later. But, it did land again! Check out these pictures from the surface of a comet.

Up above the lander, the Rosetta probe was able to snap some shots of Philae while it was mid-bounce. Very cool. While it was lucky that Philae did settle down onto 67P, it landed a bit on its side, with less sun on its solar panels than it needed to keep its batteries charge. So after just a couple of days of gathering science data, Philae went dormant.

Early science results from the comet are already being reported. The lander was able to detect organic molecules, assess the water ice quantity of the comet, and do a 3D radar mapping with Rosetta’s help, among other measurements.

Because it’s Cool

Here’s some perspective on the size of the solar system: all the planets fit between the Earth and the moon.

Not much needs to be said about this. Enjoy.

Check out this timelapse of a meteor blowing up in the atmosphere.

Weekly Links

This was not a good week for spaceflight, with two major mishaps. The first mishap, the loss of Orbital Science’s Antares rocket, with ISS cargo onboard, mere seconds after liftoff, was like a gut punch for American spaceflight. But the loss of a Scaled Composites test pilot when SpaceShipTwo was destroyed during Friday’s test flight in Mojave was a true disaster. Not only will it be a major setback from Virgin Galactic and the NewSpace industry (and a potential PR nightmare), it was a tragic loss of life. I hope that Scaled and Virgin make the families of the deceased their first priority. You can contribute to a GoFundMe program for deceased pilot Michael Alsbury here.

So, I guess it is ok that I haven’t posted for a while; now the bad can be mixed in with a bunch of cool stuff I need to catch you up on. Here are a few of the bigger stories in spaceflight over the past couple months that you should know about.

Down to Earth

One of the biggest stories of the summer was the CCtCAP (basically, NASA contract for private commercial manned flights to the ISS) award to SpaceX and Boeing. Sierra Nevada’s Dreamchaser was cut from the competition. However, Sierra Nevada has filed an official protest. The appeal process is expected to take several months, but Boeing and SpaceX will continue working on their vehicles in the meantime. The award was worth a total of $6.8 billion (over several years) with $2.6 billion to SpaceX and the rest to Boeing. Regardless of the results of the protest, space enthusiasts should be getting excited about the first crewed flights now only a few years away!

A bill is being discussed in the US House of Representatives known as the ASTEROIDS Act, which would seek to establish legislative rules regarding the mining of asteroids.

On October 17, the Air Force successfully landed the third of their secret space plane fleet, the X-37B, in California. The spacecraft spent 675 days in orbit (wow!). A fourth flight is planned for next year.

In Orbit

A lot has been going on with the ISS program since my last update just after the end of Expedition 40. Soyuz TMA-14M successfully arrived at ISS in late September with three new crew members onboard. Not long after the crew returned to 6-person strength, three separate spacewalks were conducted (two from the US segment and the RS segment) on October 7, 15 and 22. Rookie astronauts Reid Wiseman and Alex Gerst got their first spacewalks and will be returning to Earth as veterans next week. Reid got two spacewalks while Alex Gerst and Barry Wilmore both got one each.

October was the month of spacewalks, but it also saw some successful ISS vehicle traffic (despite the loss of Orbital-3). SpaceX’s fourth Dragon resupply flight was recovered after splashdown in the Pacific ocean on October 24th. Their next mission is planned to launch on December 9th. Also, just the morning after the loss of Orbital-3, a Progress resupply mission launched and docked to ISS without a hitch.

Expedition 41 will come to an end with the undocking and landing of Soyuz TMA-13M on November 10. You should follow Reid and Alex on twitter while they are still up in space taking pictures like mad.

You know Expedition 42 will be a fun time on ISS as well because of this awesome poster they made (most geeks should get the reference).

Around the Solar System

Back on October 8 many people in the Western Hemisphere enjoyed a total lunar eclipse in the early morning hours (at least for us in the USA). But here’s the view you didn’t expect: a video from Mercury (by NASA’s MESSENGER spacecraft) of the moon winking out as it passes into Earth’s shadow.

You know what, why don’t we just do a whole bunch of cool things spotted from around the solar system?

Next is Phobos transiting the sun as seen from the NASA’s Curiosity rover on Mars.

And lastly, we have the NASA spacecraft New Horizons, less than a year from arrival at Pluto. New Horizons is now close enough to its target that it was able to spot Pluto’s tiny moon Hydra with its modest onboard imaging systems (originally detected by the Hubble Telescope in 2005).

There is a lot of other exciting solar system news to catch up on. At Mars, two new spacecraft have recently arrived in orbit: India’s MOM (Mars Orbiter Mission) and NASA’s Maven. MOM is India’s first interplanetary mission and has already sent back some very nice images of the red planet. MAVEN is a probe designed to get a better understanding of Mars’ atmosphere (which should be a window into the planet’s history). MAVEN arrived at Mars in time to get some observations of comet Siding Springs as it had a close approach. Here are some other cool photos of the approach.

Just yesterday, China’s Chang’E 5 T1 mission, a technology demonstrator for a future lunar sample return, landed successfully in Mongolia.

Lastly, the Rosetta spacecraft in orbit around comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko has reached the final orbit form which the Philae lander will be deployed later this month. The landing site, site J, was chosen a few weeks ago in October.

Out There

Astronomers using the HARPS instrument in Chile have discovered a swarm of comets (almost 500!) around a nearby star. More evidence that our solar system is typical, rather than unique.

Weekly Links

Wow! What a year so far! There has been a lot of radio silence here on this blog since I was busy with my flight lead assignments at work (lead ADCO for SpaceX-3 cargo flight to ISS and then Expedition 40). Also, I am still very busy planning my wedding next month. I’m not going to try to catch you up on all the amazing and interesting things that have been going on in spaceflight year, for which I apologize. To partially fill the gap, here is a list of spaceflight industry news items that happened in August, helpfully compiled by Doug Messier of Parabolic Arc. Now on to more recent news.

Down to Earth

The crew of Soyuz TMA-12M returned to Earth on Wednesday, bringing to a close the long and eventful Expedition 40 onboard the ISS. I wonder if Swanny was happy to be home? Below is a video summary of their farewell, undocking, and landing.

Flight Engineer Reid Wiseman got this shot of the Soyuz re-entering.

Unfortunately, SpaceShipTwo will likely not have its first flight to space with Richard Branson aboard until at least early next year, according to Branson during an appearance on The Late Show. In just a few weeks it will be the 10 year anniversary of SpaceShipOne’s final flight which won the Ansari X Prize. Ten years later, the burgeoning “NewSpace” industry has not sent a single person to space. Let’s hope they are finally close.

On Thursday this week the first Orion crew module, which will fly an unmanned test flight in December, was moved from the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building to the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility where it will be fueled. Perhaps “the gap” is slowly coming to a close?

In Orbit

With Expedition 40 complete on the ISS, Expedition 41 will start off with just a three-man crew of Alex Gerst, Reid Wiseman, and Maxim Suraev. They will be joined later this month by the crew of Soyuz TMA-14M, which includes the first female cosmonaut, Elena Serova, since Yelena Kondakova flew on STS-84 in 1997. So far, Alex and Reid are kicking off Expedition 41 by continuing to constantly post amazing pictures on Twitter as @astro_reid and @astro_alex. Why aren’t you following them?!

Last weekend on September 7, SpaceX successfully launched a Falcon 9 rocket carrying the commercial communications satellite Asiasat-6. The next Falcon 9 rocket on deck will hopefully launch on September 19 carrying a Dragon spacecraft full of cargo to the ISS.

Some high activity on the sun, including an X-class solar flare, is expected to bring some very nice aurora to people living in northern latitudes tonight and tomorrow. Look up!

Around the Solar System

The Rosetta spacecraft is in orbit around the comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko, arriving earlier this summer, 10 years after launch. This “selfie” is an amazing picture that shows both part of the spacecraft and the comet in the background. Rosetta will deploy the Philae probe to land on the comet later this year. ESA is expected to announce the landing site on the comet next week.

Not wanting to be left out, Opportunity also sent home a cool summer vacation photo from the rim of Endeavour crater on Mars. Yes, this is the same Opportunity rover that landed on January 25, 2004. That would be BEFORE the last flight to space by the NewSpace industry over 10 years ago, but who is counting?

China is getting in on the party too. It seems the Yutu rover is still alive on the moon and has sent back a recent panorama.

Expedition 40: Beginnings and Endings

The International Space Station program is unique in spaceflight in that it holds the record for the longest continuous human presence in space at over 5,000 days. The longevity of the program puts people like myself in a distinct and strange position: despite being a moderately experienced flight controller with over 5 years of experience, the start of Expedition 1 in November 2000 is distant history to me. Do you know where I was when Soyuz TM-31 launched that Fall? Taking Algebra and French in 8th grade. As far as my professional career is concerned, the ISS has always been there. There was no beginning – it just was.

Being the lead ADCO, or guidance officer, for Expedition 40, has been an outstandingly challenging and rewarding experience. Taking over the reigns of something with so much history and meaning and trying to learn to steer is a bit terrifying. I imagine that it’s a bit like what stepping into the Oval Office on the first day is like, although with significantly less pressure and responsibility. There are already so many pieces in motion when you step in – people doing their jobs, mostly quite well, who don’t care that a new guy is running the show. And of course, the space station didn’t reset the day Expedition 40 began. Any issues that came up in Expedition 39 (bugs in software, worn down mechanical systems, lost cargo) are still there when the shiny new Expedition 40 patch is velcroed to the side of the Flight Director console in FCR-1. There are people working those issues: running failure investigation teams, rewriting flight rules and procedures, and planning cargo manifests. That daily grind carries no Expedition number. It is simply the work that needs to be done day in and day out until the last expedition comes home.

Which brings us to endings. There’s a cliched question you are supposed to get asked at a job interview: “Where do you see yourself in 10 years?” This question is used because 10 years is a long time. Long enough that your career should have progressed forward in some important way – maybe you moved on to management or got assigned to some new project, or maybe you don’t even want to do the same job for 10 years. Hence the interview question. Will I still be doing this job in 10 years? I don’t know. Based on the average rate that flight controllers move on to new things, I likely won’t still be in ADCO. But one thing is fairly certain: there will still be ADCOs. The ISS is planned to be flying until at least 2024. So the end is just as distant as the beginning. A child born on the day Bill Shepard launched to the ISS in 2000 could easily be manning the ADCO console when we send the space station into the Pacific in 2024, or later.

So when Expedition 40 ends tomorrow with the undocking and landing of Steve Swanson, Aleksandr Skvortsov, and Oleg Artemyev, isn’t it an ending? When Commander Steve Swanson shook Maxim Suraev’s hand today during the change of command ceremony it was the end of Expedition 40 and the beginning of Expedition 41. The return to earth of an ISS astronaut is an end to a long journey that includes years of training and preparation. For some astronauts like Chris Hadfield, who retired from the agency after he commanded ISS on Expedition 35, the return to Earth can signal the end to an important chapter of life and the chance to start something new. But at the same time, that handshake today was just the latest in a long line of handshakes that started with Bill Shepard and Yury Usachev in August 2001 when Expedition 1 ended and Expedition 2 began. Swanny and Max’s handshake was preceded by Swanny and Koichi, Koichi and Oleg, Oleg and Fyodor, Fyodor and Pavel, Pavel and Chris, and so on. So while we may choose to label tomorrow’s undocking with some importance as a minor beginning or ending, the reality is that that handshake really represents the continuation of something important and lasting.

In human spaceflight, as with many other difficult technical endeavors, the job is about building on the work of those that came before you. When the ISS elapsed time clock ticks over from 5,063 to 5,064 days tomorrow night, nothing will have begun nor ended. Instead, something amazing will continue. What a privilege to help keep it running for the 103 days of Expedition 40. Here’s to 5,000 more.

2013 in Review – Part I

Hello, and Happy New Year! Thanks for stopping by while you are hopefully enjoying a New Year’s break with friends or family. Last year, my 2012 in Review post was a link style post of discoveries made, missions launched, and heroes lost throughout the year. Reading that post again, it doesn’t give a real feel for the lay of the land, or the lay of space, if you will. Therefore, in the spirit of New Year Resolutions, this year I resolve to spend some extra effort and write a more op-ed style summary of 2013. So read on to get my impression of the triumphs, losses, and curiosities of 2013 as I see them.

Part I – NASA’s present and future

I have never liked the phrase “mixed bag”, but that’s really what the world of spaceflight has been over the past 12 months, especially if you have a balanced interest, as I do, in Earth science, planetary science, manned spaceflight, and commercial development. Space exploration is dominated by NASA and its government-given budget. Therefore, it is hard to ignore the impact of the American government’s indecision and disagreement when it comes to NASA funding, and the impact that has on our industry as a whole. NASA continues to get a relatively flat budget, which stagnates growth. But you can’t begrudge the American government too much for this – most people agree that our federal government should do something about the deficit; all agencies are being asked to do with less. The story of 2013 isn’t that NASA is getting a flat budget, it is specifically how NASA has chosen to distribute that money.

NASA continues to generously fund the growth of commercial resupply missions to ISS as well as the development of a new exploration system consisting of the Orion crew capsule and the SLS rocket. When combined with the annual operating budget of ISS, this exploration funding amounted to around 44% in both 2013 and 2012. We can see the results of this spending in a very successful year for SpaceX and Orbital Sciences (one successful ISS resupply flight each and 3 other combined test flights and no major failures) and the steady progress that the Orion capsule is making towards the first flight next fall. However, on the other side of the agency, Planetary Science has slid from 8.5% to 6.7% of the budget (here is my source for budget numbers). This doesn’t sound like much, but the dollar amount is nearly $300 million less than the planetary science community is used to. What this led to in 2013 is the beginning of the budget squeeze;  it looks as though the coming decade will have far less new planetary science missions than the American public has gotten used to from the golden ages of funding in the 1990s and 2000s. I know you probably like pictures, because I do too, so here’s a chart from the Planetary Society that can help put it into perspective.

NASA planetary science funding over time

As you can see, less money means fewer missions. The reason 2013 was full of great science results and pictures, despite budget woes, is because of the funding that launched so many great spacecraft over the past 10 years – MER rovers, Curosity rover, MESSENGER, Cassini, Juno, New Horizons, all of the Mars orbiters, Dawn, MAVEN, LADEE, LRO. All of these spacecraft were built and launched under an earlier year’s budgets. This highlights the core contradiction of where we found ourselves in 2013 in planetary science. Stunning pictures from Saturn and Mars come in daily from Opportunity, Curiosity, and Cassini, while planetary scientists are very concerned about the future. As NASA funding is funneled into the James Webb Space Telescope and the 2020 Mars rover (both missions I hope to see launched!), the American expertise when it comes to solar system exploration may, for a time, be funneled through the camera lenses of just a few spacecraft.

My intent is not to express an opinion about how much money NASA should get – or even what percentage should be given to planetary science versus other programs – but merely to paint a picture of the internal conflict (and conflict with the public perception of NASA) that started with the budget cuts in 2012 and will continue as long as NASA’s budget remains flat. Just look at this amazing view of Mount Sharp on Mars, from the Curiosity rover, a marvel of science and engineering…

The foothills of Mount Sharp on Mars

The Curiosity rover (and her older sometimes forgotten sister Opportunity) continues to inspire the enthusiast and layman alike. Budget or not, NASA has a mastery of robotic exploration, and demonstrated it in 2013 by continuing to operate missions successfully. NASA did lose two missions in 2013 – Kepler and Deep Impact/EPOXI – but both had technically fulfilled their primary missions.

While planetary science missions are usually the “best foot forward” for NASA, 2013 showed us that the public still loves our astronauts and finds manned spaceflight worthwhile. As I wrote last year, 2012 was the year that NASA’s astronaut office realized the importance and potential of online social media. The active ISS crews in 2013 took this to heart and turned Expeditions 34 and 35 during the first half of the year into an internet sensation, mainly due to the charismatic presence of Commander Chris Hadfield on Youtube and Twitter (here’s a Flickr stream of Hadfield’s mission).

Hadfield was special in that he combined the constant joy of being in space (which is not unique to him at all) with an open and emotional personality, a desire to share, and artistic talent. That last one locked in the “sensation” part. All impressive for someone who is first – professionally – a fighter pilot.

If NASA is crafty, it will take advantage of the enthusiasm for Hadfield and the ISS program before it has time to fade (which I hope it won’t!) and direct it into support for future programs like SLS and Orion and the Asteroid Retrieval and Utilization mission. In case you missed it, the ARU is the plan to send a spacecraft to a Near Earth Asteroid, capture that asteroid, and return it to Earth, all with human astronauts aboard. The ARU was announced by NASA leadership in the spring of 2013. As I wrote about in late April, the plan got somewhat less excitement from the public than was probably hoped.

The problem with ARU, and NASA’s current approach to manned spaceflight overall, is context and an end goal. When asked to explain the initiative this spring, NASA stated that the mission will integrate the best of our science and technology, while utlizing the new Orion and SLS systems, while at the same time keeping “…NASA on target to reach the President’s goal of sending humans to Mars in the 2030s.” The question is, is NASA’s focus on planetary defense and asteroid deflection or is it just an excuse to test technology for going to Mars? NASA leadership is quoted as saying that Mars is a priority and that the moon is not even being considered. Yet, no clear internal roadmap or guiding set of priorities outlines the timeline and rationale for future exploration missions. Instead it often feels to the public like NASA is searching for missions to justify new hardware, rather than the other way around.

It may very well be that NASA knows where it is going, but is simply in the necessary doldrums. Stuck in between manned launch vehicles (the dreaded “gap”) there is a lack of inspiration for the public. NASA may just need some results, some action, when it comes to these grand future plans, and the public will jump onboard. Orion’s first (unmanned) flight is less than a year away. The Exploration Flight Test (EFT-1) will send Orion up to almost 4,000 miles to test out the heat shield on a blazing fast re-entry. Will this mission inspire and excite? It is possible. It could be that more results and less talk will cause the roadmap to also become more clear. For now, talk is cheap, and that is essentially NASA’s problem – lots of talk, and a cheap government.

Talk is also cheap in the continuously emerging private sector, and yet somehow they seem to inspire somewhat more excitement. I will explore the new private initiatives of 2013, and their impact on the spaceflight industry, in part II of my 2013 year in review.

Weekly Links

It’s been a busy of December since my last post. A hectic week at work, following the thermal pump malfunction on December 11th, kept me very busy right up until my vacation to visit family around Christmas for a week. I am back in Houston now and working on catching up on what’s been happening outside of my little world for the past few weeks. This post will be followed shortly by a 2013 year in review post, so stay tuned!

Down to Earth

On December 10th, NASA JSC’s Morpheus vertical take-off and landing test vehicle conducted its first free flight since the previous model was destroyed in August 2012. Very cool to watch.

Edit: and they flew another flight just a few days later on December 17th, which I missed when I first wrote this post.

On December 11th, Virgin Galactic’s SpaceShipTwo conducted a glide test in Mojave. More test are always good, but the frequency of glide tests without powered flights over the past few months was pretty much the nail in the coffin for Richard Branson’s prediction that he and his family would fly into space on the first suborbital flight on Christmas of this year. Clearly that didn’t happen. It seems likely however that Virgin will conduct another powered flight soon, possibly in the first week of January.

Doug Messier at Parabolic Arc is calling the first few days of 2014 “Launch Week”. Details on the various launches can be found over at his blog, but the quick summary is: SpaceX Falcon 9 commercial launch on Jan 3, Indian comm sat launch on Jan 5, Orbital Sciences ISS resupply flight on Jan 7, and a possible SpaceShipTwo flight.

Did you enjoy the movie Gravity? I liked it so much I saw it twice. Too bad the DVD wasn’t available for Christmas. Anyway, if you liked the movie, then take the time to watch this short behind-the-scenes clip that gives a glimpse at how some of the complex special effects were done.

The Las Vegas based company Bigelow Aerospace has put out a call for applicants to their “astronaut in-space simulations”. Basically the company wants to do their own independent look at how astronauts interact in closed quarters and also use the opportunity to improve their “crew systems” (in other words, the interior details of their inflatable space stations). Why not apply? Can’t hurt.

Be sure to go outside on January 3rd to look for the Quadrantid Meteors. They are supposed to be one of the best showers of the year, and this year the peak occurs on a new moon.

Astronaut Kevin Ford reminisced about spending Christmas in space during expedition 34 one year ago.

Folks are talking about Beyonce’s new song XO which opens with a sampling from the NASA broadcast of STS-51-L launch on January 28, 1986. The audio used is of the Public Affairs Officer reacting shortly after the shuttle Challenger was lost. The choice seems pretty tasteless and disrespectful, even if one can construe an ambiguous connection between the lyrics and the idea of a lost loved one. I personally can’t figure out if it is just a simple love song that has nothing to do with Challenger, or if it is intended to be something deeper. Listen for yourself.

In Orbit

The big news in orbit over the past couple of weeks was the malfunction onboard the International Space Station that led to two contingency EVAs that were prepared and executed right before Christmas. The issue also caused NASA to have to delay the launch and rendezvous of the second Orbital Sciences cargo flight to ISS, planned for a December 18th launch. The launch is now to occur in early January.

The summary of what happened is that on December 11th flight controllers started seeing anomalies in the ISS thermal cooling system. The problem was narrowed down to a faulty Flow Control Valve in one of the two pumps that flows ammonia to cool components on the outside of the station. Over the ensuing days, a few different teams were convened – one team was planning contingency EVAs to replace the pump, another was doing troubleshooting and thinking of ways to try to make the system work with the faulty valve, and another team was preparing a procedure to be executed in case the second pump failed (I was part of this team). After these teams worked night and day for over a week, it was determined that the pump should be replaced, and the first EVA was conducted on December 21st. The spacewalk was very successful; the pump removal went much better than a similar operation that replaced the same pump after a failure in 2010 during Expedition 24.

The second spacewalk was conducted on December 24th and left the station with a brand new pump and no more concerns about the thermal system for the time being. A potential third EVA was cancelled and the space station crew (and ground teams!) got a much needed break for Christmas.

The quick repair even allowed the Russian space agency to conduct their spacewalk that had already been scheduled for December 27th. One of the key objectives of the Russian EVA was to install some commercial cameras on the outside of the station. The purpose of the cameras is to make a live feed of Earth images, in fairly good resolution, available to the public. The cosmonauts got the cameras installed but they would not boot up, so they unfortately had to be brought back inside for troubleshooting.

Christmas 2013 is the 45th anniversary of an iconic photo taken by the crew of Apollo 8 while in orbit around the moon: Earthrise.

Earthrise

A team from NASA Goddard (with Andrew Chaikin for narration) put together a very cool (in an extremely nerdy way) recreation of how the image was captured that day (via Bad Astronomy).

Around the Solar System

On December 14th, the Chinese Chang’e 3 spacecraft came to a soft landing in the Bay of Rainbows on the Moon and quickly deployed the Yutu rover. Chang’e 3 is the first soft landing on the moon since the Soviet Luna 24 in 1976. Since that was over 37 years ago, almost 60% of the world’s population was not alive the last time there was an active rover on the moon. Emily Lakdawalla of the Planetary Society has been doing an excellent job, as usual, gathering information and compiling the best photos and video clips of the Chang’e 3 mission. Here is an update from December 14th and  from December 23rd, but I recommend just following her blog directly for the best stuff!

Very cool news from the Hubble Space Telescope; recent data in ultraviolet wavelengths reveals strong evidence of liquid water geysers coming from Europa, a frozen moon of Jupiter. Previously, water geysers have been imaged in visible light coming from Saturn’s moon, Enceladus. The images are stunning. Water geysers imply an ample supply of subsurface water (either in a vast ocean or just pockets or lakes in the ice) as well as the possibility for a medium for life, and a way for our spacecraft to sample that water without needing to drill deep into the ice. More science needs to be done to confirm the Europa geysers but the current data seems very compelling. Unfortunately, it is unlikely that the Juno spacecraft, currently on its way to Jupiter, will be able to confirm the geysers. This is because Juno’s missions objectives are related to the planet Jupiter itself, not its moons, and the visible light camera on Juno is more of an outreach tool than a primary instrument.

Lastly in planetary science news, the European orbiter Mars Express should have completed its very close flyby of the Mars moon Phobos by now. As Phil Plait writes, we don’t expect to get any close up pictures from the 27 mile flyby, but the data should help scientists nail down the exact mass of Phobos.

Weekly Links

Down to Earth

The Russian space agency and their cosmonauts successfully completed their Olympics PR stunt last week. On Saturday, November 9th, cosmonauts Oleg Kotov and Sergey Ryazanskiy took the 2014 Olympic Torch outside the space station and took some pictures.

After the symbolic handoff in space, the Expedition 37 crew from the Soyuz TMA-09M donned their Sokol spacesuits, climbed aboard their Soyuz, and returned to Earth early on Monday, November 11. Congratulations to Nyberg, Parmitano, and Yurchikhin on a great mission, and congratulations to the Russians on a successful orbital Olympic relay. Hopefully our space programs will get a bit of a PR boost as a result.

Expedition 37 with Olympic torch safely home

In heavier news, two space industry workers at the Plesetsk Cosmodrome in Russia died earlier this month in a propellant tank accident.

Two veterans of the Soviet space program died in the last month. First, Dmitri Zaikin, selected in the first class of Cosmonauts in 1960, died at 81. Zaikin never flew in space desite a long career in the program and being assigned as backup Voshkoh 2 commander. Second, Alexander Serebrov, from the second generation of cosmonauts, died at 69. Serebrov logged over a year in space on three separate missions, including flights to Salyut and MIR space stations.

The European Space Agency’s GOCE (Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer) satellite recently ran out of fuel and crashed back to Earth, after a reportedly successful 4 year mission. Here is a cool picture of its re-entry over a remote part of the Atlantic OCean near the Falkland Islands.

In Orbit

On November 12th, Russia launched a satellite aboard a Proton Breeze-M rocket – the same type of rocket that crashed spectacularly back in July. This marks 3 launches since the crash, which is good news for the ISS program, which is supposed to receive a large new module called MLM aboard a Proton rocket.

In other launch news, SpaceX is scheduled to launch another one of their upgraded Falcon 9 version 1.1 rockets on November 25th, this time from Florida.

Around the Solar System

Continuing the launch news, NASA’s MAVEN Mars orbiter is set to launch on Monday, November 18th.

Mars rover Curiosity spent a bit of time in Safe Mode recently, but is back in full working order.

Comet ISON recently had an outburst and is now as bright as 5.5 magnitude. This should be visible with naked eye for people in dark sites (like my hometown Waikoloa, Hawaii) or keen observers with binoculars or telescopes in less dark areas. Keep in mind that there is a full moon late this week, however. Here are some helpful charts from EarthSky on how to find the comet. The comet is up in the early morning, as it is heading towards perihelion (closest point to the sun) in November 28. Most people are hoping the comet will be even brighter when it emerges from around the sun in December.

Because it’s Cool

XKCD takes a new tact on an old saying about space and perseverance.

Retired ISS Commander Chris Hadfield is now charging full into his book tour to promote his memoir-slash-self-help book An Astronaut’s Guide to Life on Earth. I have been thoroughly enjoying his short videos promoting himself and his book. I think he is fitting into his post-space career very well. Check it out.

Weekly Links

Down to Earth

Sierra Nevada had an unpiloted glide and landing test of their DreamChaser space plane back on October 26th. Unfortunately, the left landing gear did not deploy on approach and the spacecraft crashed. The company quickly clarified that no major damage was sustained and they are looking into the mechanical cause of the stuck landing gear. The company has not released footage of the actual crash though. The video below cuts off just before landing.

Retired ISS commander Chris Hadfield’s new book “An Astronaut’s Guide to Life On Earth” is now on sale. I got my signed copy today here at NASA JSC! Commander Hadfield is back in Houston for a NASA checkup and is doing some book tour stops while here. Hope to read it and write a review soon!

In Orbit

November is a busy month for deliveries to the ISS. Last weekend, on November 2nd, ATV4 re-entered the atmosphere – undocking had been several days prior. A special experiment took place on ISS to get high resolution photos of the craft burning up and here are the results.

Courtesy ESA

ATV4 re-entry from ISS

With ATV gone, we are gearing up for the arrival of the new ISS crew. The second half of Expedition 38 – Koichi Wakata, Richard Mastracchio, and Mikhail Tyurin – will launch from Kazakhstan on their Soyuz spacecraft on Thursday, November 7. As is the new flavor of Soyuz flights, they will arrive at ISS just 6 hours later. This crew is one of the most veteran-filled to share a Soyuz in a while. Wakata and Mastracchio will each be on their 4th spaceflights while Tyurin will be on his third. I expect that when Wakata returns to Earth, he will be the only Japanese astronaut on the top 50 list of most time in space (Which you can find about halfway down the page here).

The really exciting thing about this Soyuz flight is that it launches before the first half of Expedition 37 leaves ISS – which is usual how we trade out crews. Instead there will be a short period of 9 people onboard ISS for the first time since the end of the Shuttle program. Why are we doing this? So that an Olympic torch can be carried on a Russian EVA this weekend and then quickly returned two days later with the Soyuz TMA-09M crew. In order for this even to work, last Friday that crew climbed aboard their Soyuz in full re-entry suits and “relocated” their spacecraft from one ISS port to another. A lot of work for a little PR. We will see if it pays off.

Around the Solar System

On Tuesday, November 5th, India launched their Mangalyaan spacecraft to Mars. Mangalyaan is a Mars climate orbiter that will reach the red planet next year after a 10-month Hohmann transfer orbit. India’s mission is the first of two missions to launch int he current Mars window. NASA’s MAVEN mission is to launch on November 18.

Out There

I always like getting to talk hard science. There have been some great results regarding astronomy in the past few weeks:

First, astronomers from various universities collaborated on an observation that found the most distant galaxy ever imaged. The work was done at the Keck Observatory in Hawaii (shout out to my dad who does coding work at Keck on the instrument that was used!). The galaxy has an extreme redshift that puts it only 700 million years after the birth of the universe. Hopefully imaging the youngest galaxies will help us understand fundamentals of galaxy formation.

In exoplanet news, there are some developments. Planet Kepler-78b, which is a small very hot planet orbiting its star in just 8.5 hours – had its density measured (using the Doppler Shift method) and it was discovered that it is about the same size and density as the Earth. Most people are calling this the first actual “Earth-like” planet discovered in another solar system. However, it is still too close to its star to be habitable.

But even more exciting, perhaps, than this actual discovery of an “Earth-like” world is the statistical analysis (again using Keck data!) that shows that one-in-five stars in our galaxy is likely to have an Earth-sized planet in the habitable zone. Wow! You might be tempted to say “its just a statistical analysis” but really that’s all any estimate like this is ever going to be because we cannot get direct data on whether all 400 stars have planets. The more planets we discover, the better our sample size, of course. But right now it is looking promising that the follow-on missions to Kepler (JWST and others) have a high likelihood of directly imaging one of these sister Earths. We live in exciting times.