Archive for the ‘astronauts’ Category

Weekly Links

Wow! What a year so far! There has been a lot of radio silence here on this blog since I was busy with my flight lead assignments at work (lead ADCO for SpaceX-3 cargo flight to ISS and then Expedition 40). Also, I am still very busy planning my wedding next month. I’m not going to try to catch you up on all the amazing and interesting things that have been going on in spaceflight year, for which I apologize. To partially fill the gap, here is a list of spaceflight industry news items that happened in August, helpfully compiled by Doug Messier of Parabolic Arc. Now on to more recent news.

Down to Earth

The crew of Soyuz TMA-12M returned to Earth on Wednesday, bringing to a close the long and eventful Expedition 40 onboard the ISS. I wonder if Swanny was happy to be home? Below is a video summary of their farewell, undocking, and landing.

Flight Engineer Reid Wiseman got this shot of the Soyuz re-entering.

Unfortunately, SpaceShipTwo will likely not have its first flight to space with Richard Branson aboard until at least early next year, according to Branson during an appearance on The Late Show. In just a few weeks it will be the 10 year anniversary of SpaceShipOne’s final flight which won the Ansari X Prize. Ten years later, the burgeoning “NewSpace” industry has not sent a single person to space. Let’s hope they are finally close.

On Thursday this week the first Orion crew module, which will fly an unmanned test flight in December, was moved from the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building to the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility where it will be fueled. Perhaps “the gap” is slowly coming to a close?

In Orbit

With Expedition 40 complete on the ISS, Expedition 41 will start off with just a three-man crew of Alex Gerst, Reid Wiseman, and Maxim Suraev. They will be joined later this month by the crew of Soyuz TMA-14M, which includes the first female cosmonaut, Elena Serova, since Yelena Kondakova flew on STS-84 in 1997. So far, Alex and Reid are kicking off Expedition 41 by continuing to constantly post amazing pictures on Twitter as @astro_reid and @astro_alex. Why aren’t you following them?!

Last weekend on September 7, SpaceX successfully launched a Falcon 9 rocket carrying the commercial communications satellite Asiasat-6. The next Falcon 9 rocket on deck will hopefully launch on September 19 carrying a Dragon spacecraft full of cargo to the ISS.

Some high activity on the sun, including an X-class solar flare, is expected to bring some very nice aurora to people living in northern latitudes tonight and tomorrow. Look up!

Around the Solar System

The Rosetta spacecraft is in orbit around the comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko, arriving earlier this summer, 10 years after launch. This “selfie” is an amazing picture that shows both part of the spacecraft and the comet in the background. Rosetta will deploy the Philae probe to land on the comet later this year. ESA is expected to announce the landing site on the comet next week.

Not wanting to be left out, Opportunity also sent home a cool summer vacation photo from the rim of Endeavour crater on Mars. Yes, this is the same Opportunity rover that landed on January 25, 2004. That would be BEFORE the last flight to space by the NewSpace industry over 10 years ago, but who is counting?

China is getting in on the party too. It seems the Yutu rover is still alive on the moon and has sent back a recent panorama.

Expedition 40: Beginnings and Endings

The International Space Station program is unique in spaceflight in that it holds the record for the longest continuous human presence in space at over 5,000 days. The longevity of the program puts people like myself in a distinct and strange position: despite being a moderately experienced flight controller with over 5 years of experience, the start of Expedition 1 in November 2000 is distant history to me. Do you know where I was when Soyuz TM-31 launched that Fall? Taking Algebra and French in 8th grade. As far as my professional career is concerned, the ISS has always been there. There was no beginning – it just was.

Being the lead ADCO, or guidance officer, for Expedition 40, has been an outstandingly challenging and rewarding experience. Taking over the reigns of something with so much history and meaning and trying to learn to steer is a bit terrifying. I imagine that it’s a bit like what stepping into the Oval Office on the first day is like, although with significantly less pressure and responsibility. There are already so many pieces in motion when you step in – people doing their jobs, mostly quite well, who don’t care that a new guy is running the show. And of course, the space station didn’t reset the day Expedition 40 began. Any issues that came up in Expedition 39 (bugs in software, worn down mechanical systems, lost cargo) are still there when the shiny new Expedition 40 patch is velcroed to the side of the Flight Director console in FCR-1. There are people working those issues: running failure investigation teams, rewriting flight rules and procedures, and planning cargo manifests. That daily grind carries no Expedition number. It is simply the work that needs to be done day in and day out until the last expedition comes home.

Which brings us to endings. There’s a cliched question you are supposed to get asked at a job interview: “Where do you see yourself in 10 years?” This question is used because 10 years is a long time. Long enough that your career should have progressed forward in some important way – maybe you moved on to management or got assigned to some new project, or maybe you don’t even want to do the same job for 10 years. Hence the interview question. Will I still be doing this job in 10 years? I don’t know. Based on the average rate that flight controllers move on to new things, I likely won’t still be in ADCO. But one thing is fairly certain: there will still be ADCOs. The ISS is planned to be flying until at least 2024. So the end is just as distant as the beginning. A child born on the day Bill Shepard launched to the ISS in 2000 could easily be manning the ADCO console when we send the space station into the Pacific in 2024, or later.

So when Expedition 40 ends tomorrow with the undocking and landing of Steve Swanson, Aleksandr Skvortsov, and Oleg Artemyev, isn’t it an ending? When Commander Steve Swanson shook Maxim Suraev’s hand today during the change of command ceremony it was the end of Expedition 40 and the beginning of Expedition 41. The return to earth of an ISS astronaut is an end to a long journey that includes years of training and preparation. For some astronauts like Chris Hadfield, who retired from the agency after he commanded ISS on Expedition 35, the return to Earth can signal the end to an important chapter of life and the chance to start something new. But at the same time, that handshake today was just the latest in a long line of handshakes that started with Bill Shepard and Yury Usachev in August 2001 when Expedition 1 ended and Expedition 2 began. Swanny and Max’s handshake was preceded by Swanny and Koichi, Koichi and Oleg, Oleg and Fyodor, Fyodor and Pavel, Pavel and Chris, and so on. So while we may choose to label tomorrow’s undocking with some importance as a minor beginning or ending, the reality is that that handshake really represents the continuation of something important and lasting.

In human spaceflight, as with many other difficult technical endeavors, the job is about building on the work of those that came before you. When the ISS elapsed time clock ticks over from 5,063 to 5,064 days tomorrow night, nothing will have begun nor ended. Instead, something amazing will continue. What a privilege to help keep it running for the 103 days of Expedition 40. Here’s to 5,000 more.

2013 in Review – Part I

Hello, and Happy New Year! Thanks for stopping by while you are hopefully enjoying a New Year’s break with friends or family. Last year, my 2012 in Review post was a link style post of discoveries made, missions launched, and heroes lost throughout the year. Reading that post again, it doesn’t give a real feel for the lay of the land, or the lay of space, if you will. Therefore, in the spirit of New Year Resolutions, this year I resolve to spend some extra effort and write a more op-ed style summary of 2013. So read on to get my impression of the triumphs, losses, and curiosities of 2013 as I see them.

Part I – NASA’s present and future

I have never liked the phrase “mixed bag”, but that’s really what the world of spaceflight has been over the past 12 months, especially if you have a balanced interest, as I do, in Earth science, planetary science, manned spaceflight, and commercial development. Space exploration is dominated by NASA and its government-given budget. Therefore, it is hard to ignore the impact of the American government’s indecision and disagreement when it comes to NASA funding, and the impact that has on our industry as a whole. NASA continues to get a relatively flat budget, which stagnates growth. But you can’t begrudge the American government too much for this – most people agree that our federal government should do something about the deficit; all agencies are being asked to do with less. The story of 2013 isn’t that NASA is getting a flat budget, it is specifically how NASA has chosen to distribute that money.

NASA continues to generously fund the growth of commercial resupply missions to ISS as well as the development of a new exploration system consisting of the Orion crew capsule and the SLS rocket. When combined with the annual operating budget of ISS, this exploration funding amounted to around 44% in both 2013 and 2012. We can see the results of this spending in a very successful year for SpaceX and Orbital Sciences (one successful ISS resupply flight each and 3 other combined test flights and no major failures) and the steady progress that the Orion capsule is making towards the first flight next fall. However, on the other side of the agency, Planetary Science has slid from 8.5% to 6.7% of the budget (here is my source for budget numbers). This doesn’t sound like much, but the dollar amount is nearly $300 million less than the planetary science community is used to. What this led to in 2013 is the beginning of the budget squeeze;  it looks as though the coming decade will have far less new planetary science missions than the American public has gotten used to from the golden ages of funding in the 1990s and 2000s. I know you probably like pictures, because I do too, so here’s a chart from the Planetary Society that can help put it into perspective.

NASA planetary science funding over time

As you can see, less money means fewer missions. The reason 2013 was full of great science results and pictures, despite budget woes, is because of the funding that launched so many great spacecraft over the past 10 years – MER rovers, Curosity rover, MESSENGER, Cassini, Juno, New Horizons, all of the Mars orbiters, Dawn, MAVEN, LADEE, LRO. All of these spacecraft were built and launched under an earlier year’s budgets. This highlights the core contradiction of where we found ourselves in 2013 in planetary science. Stunning pictures from Saturn and Mars come in daily from Opportunity, Curiosity, and Cassini, while planetary scientists are very concerned about the future. As NASA funding is funneled into the James Webb Space Telescope and the 2020 Mars rover (both missions I hope to see launched!), the American expertise when it comes to solar system exploration may, for a time, be funneled through the camera lenses of just a few spacecraft.

My intent is not to express an opinion about how much money NASA should get – or even what percentage should be given to planetary science versus other programs – but merely to paint a picture of the internal conflict (and conflict with the public perception of NASA) that started with the budget cuts in 2012 and will continue as long as NASA’s budget remains flat. Just look at this amazing view of Mount Sharp on Mars, from the Curiosity rover, a marvel of science and engineering…

The foothills of Mount Sharp on Mars

The Curiosity rover (and her older sometimes forgotten sister Opportunity) continues to inspire the enthusiast and layman alike. Budget or not, NASA has a mastery of robotic exploration, and demonstrated it in 2013 by continuing to operate missions successfully. NASA did lose two missions in 2013 – Kepler and Deep Impact/EPOXI – but both had technically fulfilled their primary missions.

While planetary science missions are usually the “best foot forward” for NASA, 2013 showed us that the public still loves our astronauts and finds manned spaceflight worthwhile. As I wrote last year, 2012 was the year that NASA’s astronaut office realized the importance and potential of online social media. The active ISS crews in 2013 took this to heart and turned Expeditions 34 and 35 during the first half of the year into an internet sensation, mainly due to the charismatic presence of Commander Chris Hadfield on Youtube and Twitter (here’s a Flickr stream of Hadfield’s mission).

Hadfield was special in that he combined the constant joy of being in space (which is not unique to him at all) with an open and emotional personality, a desire to share, and artistic talent. That last one locked in the “sensation” part. All impressive for someone who is first – professionally – a fighter pilot.

If NASA is crafty, it will take advantage of the enthusiasm for Hadfield and the ISS program before it has time to fade (which I hope it won’t!) and direct it into support for future programs like SLS and Orion and the Asteroid Retrieval and Utilization mission. In case you missed it, the ARU is the plan to send a spacecraft to a Near Earth Asteroid, capture that asteroid, and return it to Earth, all with human astronauts aboard. The ARU was announced by NASA leadership in the spring of 2013. As I wrote about in late April, the plan got somewhat less excitement from the public than was probably hoped.

The problem with ARU, and NASA’s current approach to manned spaceflight overall, is context and an end goal. When asked to explain the initiative this spring, NASA stated that the mission will integrate the best of our science and technology, while utlizing the new Orion and SLS systems, while at the same time keeping “…NASA on target to reach the President’s goal of sending humans to Mars in the 2030s.” The question is, is NASA’s focus on planetary defense and asteroid deflection or is it just an excuse to test technology for going to Mars? NASA leadership is quoted as saying that Mars is a priority and that the moon is not even being considered. Yet, no clear internal roadmap or guiding set of priorities outlines the timeline and rationale for future exploration missions. Instead it often feels to the public like NASA is searching for missions to justify new hardware, rather than the other way around.

It may very well be that NASA knows where it is going, but is simply in the necessary doldrums. Stuck in between manned launch vehicles (the dreaded “gap”) there is a lack of inspiration for the public. NASA may just need some results, some action, when it comes to these grand future plans, and the public will jump onboard. Orion’s first (unmanned) flight is less than a year away. The Exploration Flight Test (EFT-1) will send Orion up to almost 4,000 miles to test out the heat shield on a blazing fast re-entry. Will this mission inspire and excite? It is possible. It could be that more results and less talk will cause the roadmap to also become more clear. For now, talk is cheap, and that is essentially NASA’s problem – lots of talk, and a cheap government.

Talk is also cheap in the continuously emerging private sector, and yet somehow they seem to inspire somewhat more excitement. I will explore the new private initiatives of 2013, and their impact on the spaceflight industry, in part II of my 2013 year in review.

Weekly Links

It’s been a busy of December since my last post. A hectic week at work, following the thermal pump malfunction on December 11th, kept me very busy right up until my vacation to visit family around Christmas for a week. I am back in Houston now and working on catching up on what’s been happening outside of my little world for the past few weeks. This post will be followed shortly by a 2013 year in review post, so stay tuned!

Down to Earth

On December 10th, NASA JSC’s Morpheus vertical take-off and landing test vehicle conducted its first free flight since the previous model was destroyed in August 2012. Very cool to watch.

Edit: and they flew another flight just a few days later on December 17th, which I missed when I first wrote this post.

On December 11th, Virgin Galactic’s SpaceShipTwo conducted a glide test in Mojave. More test are always good, but the frequency of glide tests without powered flights over the past few months was pretty much the nail in the coffin for Richard Branson’s prediction that he and his family would fly into space on the first suborbital flight on Christmas of this year. Clearly that didn’t happen. It seems likely however that Virgin will conduct another powered flight soon, possibly in the first week of January.

Doug Messier at Parabolic Arc is calling the first few days of 2014 “Launch Week”. Details on the various launches can be found over at his blog, but the quick summary is: SpaceX Falcon 9 commercial launch on Jan 3, Indian comm sat launch on Jan 5, Orbital Sciences ISS resupply flight on Jan 7, and a possible SpaceShipTwo flight.

Did you enjoy the movie Gravity? I liked it so much I saw it twice. Too bad the DVD wasn’t available for Christmas. Anyway, if you liked the movie, then take the time to watch this short behind-the-scenes clip that gives a glimpse at how some of the complex special effects were done.

The Las Vegas based company Bigelow Aerospace has put out a call for applicants to their “astronaut in-space simulations”. Basically the company wants to do their own independent look at how astronauts interact in closed quarters and also use the opportunity to improve their “crew systems” (in other words, the interior details of their inflatable space stations). Why not apply? Can’t hurt.

Be sure to go outside on January 3rd to look for the Quadrantid Meteors. They are supposed to be one of the best showers of the year, and this year the peak occurs on a new moon.

Astronaut Kevin Ford reminisced about spending Christmas in space during expedition 34 one year ago.

Folks are talking about Beyonce’s new song XO which opens with a sampling from the NASA broadcast of STS-51-L launch on January 28, 1986. The audio used is of the Public Affairs Officer reacting shortly after the shuttle Challenger was lost. The choice seems pretty tasteless and disrespectful, even if one can construe an ambiguous connection between the lyrics and the idea of a lost loved one. I personally can’t figure out if it is just a simple love song that has nothing to do with Challenger, or if it is intended to be something deeper. Listen for yourself.

In Orbit

The big news in orbit over the past couple of weeks was the malfunction onboard the International Space Station that led to two contingency EVAs that were prepared and executed right before Christmas. The issue also caused NASA to have to delay the launch and rendezvous of the second Orbital Sciences cargo flight to ISS, planned for a December 18th launch. The launch is now to occur in early January.

The summary of what happened is that on December 11th flight controllers started seeing anomalies in the ISS thermal cooling system. The problem was narrowed down to a faulty Flow Control Valve in one of the two pumps that flows ammonia to cool components on the outside of the station. Over the ensuing days, a few different teams were convened – one team was planning contingency EVAs to replace the pump, another was doing troubleshooting and thinking of ways to try to make the system work with the faulty valve, and another team was preparing a procedure to be executed in case the second pump failed (I was part of this team). After these teams worked night and day for over a week, it was determined that the pump should be replaced, and the first EVA was conducted on December 21st. The spacewalk was very successful; the pump removal went much better than a similar operation that replaced the same pump after a failure in 2010 during Expedition 24.

The second spacewalk was conducted on December 24th and left the station with a brand new pump and no more concerns about the thermal system for the time being. A potential third EVA was cancelled and the space station crew (and ground teams!) got a much needed break for Christmas.

The quick repair even allowed the Russian space agency to conduct their spacewalk that had already been scheduled for December 27th. One of the key objectives of the Russian EVA was to install some commercial cameras on the outside of the station. The purpose of the cameras is to make a live feed of Earth images, in fairly good resolution, available to the public. The cosmonauts got the cameras installed but they would not boot up, so they unfortately had to be brought back inside for troubleshooting.

Christmas 2013 is the 45th anniversary of an iconic photo taken by the crew of Apollo 8 while in orbit around the moon: Earthrise.

Earthrise

A team from NASA Goddard (with Andrew Chaikin for narration) put together a very cool (in an extremely nerdy way) recreation of how the image was captured that day (via Bad Astronomy).

Around the Solar System

On December 14th, the Chinese Chang’e 3 spacecraft came to a soft landing in the Bay of Rainbows on the Moon and quickly deployed the Yutu rover. Chang’e 3 is the first soft landing on the moon since the Soviet Luna 24 in 1976. Since that was over 37 years ago, almost 60% of the world’s population was not alive the last time there was an active rover on the moon. Emily Lakdawalla of the Planetary Society has been doing an excellent job, as usual, gathering information and compiling the best photos and video clips of the Chang’e 3 mission. Here is an update from December 14th and  from December 23rd, but I recommend just following her blog directly for the best stuff!

Very cool news from the Hubble Space Telescope; recent data in ultraviolet wavelengths reveals strong evidence of liquid water geysers coming from Europa, a frozen moon of Jupiter. Previously, water geysers have been imaged in visible light coming from Saturn’s moon, Enceladus. The images are stunning. Water geysers imply an ample supply of subsurface water (either in a vast ocean or just pockets or lakes in the ice) as well as the possibility for a medium for life, and a way for our spacecraft to sample that water without needing to drill deep into the ice. More science needs to be done to confirm the Europa geysers but the current data seems very compelling. Unfortunately, it is unlikely that the Juno spacecraft, currently on its way to Jupiter, will be able to confirm the geysers. This is because Juno’s missions objectives are related to the planet Jupiter itself, not its moons, and the visible light camera on Juno is more of an outreach tool than a primary instrument.

Lastly in planetary science news, the European orbiter Mars Express should have completed its very close flyby of the Mars moon Phobos by now. As Phil Plait writes, we don’t expect to get any close up pictures from the 27 mile flyby, but the data should help scientists nail down the exact mass of Phobos.

Weekly Links

Down to Earth

The Russian space agency and their cosmonauts successfully completed their Olympics PR stunt last week. On Saturday, November 9th, cosmonauts Oleg Kotov and Sergey Ryazanskiy took the 2014 Olympic Torch outside the space station and took some pictures.

After the symbolic handoff in space, the Expedition 37 crew from the Soyuz TMA-09M donned their Sokol spacesuits, climbed aboard their Soyuz, and returned to Earth early on Monday, November 11. Congratulations to Nyberg, Parmitano, and Yurchikhin on a great mission, and congratulations to the Russians on a successful orbital Olympic relay. Hopefully our space programs will get a bit of a PR boost as a result.

Expedition 37 with Olympic torch safely home

In heavier news, two space industry workers at the Plesetsk Cosmodrome in Russia died earlier this month in a propellant tank accident.

Two veterans of the Soviet space program died in the last month. First, Dmitri Zaikin, selected in the first class of Cosmonauts in 1960, died at 81. Zaikin never flew in space desite a long career in the program and being assigned as backup Voshkoh 2 commander. Second, Alexander Serebrov, from the second generation of cosmonauts, died at 69. Serebrov logged over a year in space on three separate missions, including flights to Salyut and MIR space stations.

The European Space Agency’s GOCE (Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer) satellite recently ran out of fuel and crashed back to Earth, after a reportedly successful 4 year mission. Here is a cool picture of its re-entry over a remote part of the Atlantic OCean near the Falkland Islands.

In Orbit

On November 12th, Russia launched a satellite aboard a Proton Breeze-M rocket – the same type of rocket that crashed spectacularly back in July. This marks 3 launches since the crash, which is good news for the ISS program, which is supposed to receive a large new module called MLM aboard a Proton rocket.

In other launch news, SpaceX is scheduled to launch another one of their upgraded Falcon 9 version 1.1 rockets on November 25th, this time from Florida.

Around the Solar System

Continuing the launch news, NASA’s MAVEN Mars orbiter is set to launch on Monday, November 18th.

Mars rover Curiosity spent a bit of time in Safe Mode recently, but is back in full working order.

Comet ISON recently had an outburst and is now as bright as 5.5 magnitude. This should be visible with naked eye for people in dark sites (like my hometown Waikoloa, Hawaii) or keen observers with binoculars or telescopes in less dark areas. Keep in mind that there is a full moon late this week, however. Here are some helpful charts from EarthSky on how to find the comet. The comet is up in the early morning, as it is heading towards perihelion (closest point to the sun) in November 28. Most people are hoping the comet will be even brighter when it emerges from around the sun in December.

Because it’s Cool

XKCD takes a new tact on an old saying about space and perseverance.

Retired ISS Commander Chris Hadfield is now charging full into his book tour to promote his memoir-slash-self-help book An Astronaut’s Guide to Life on Earth. I have been thoroughly enjoying his short videos promoting himself and his book. I think he is fitting into his post-space career very well. Check it out.

Weekly Links

Down to Earth

Sierra Nevada had an unpiloted glide and landing test of their DreamChaser space plane back on October 26th. Unfortunately, the left landing gear did not deploy on approach and the spacecraft crashed. The company quickly clarified that no major damage was sustained and they are looking into the mechanical cause of the stuck landing gear. The company has not released footage of the actual crash though. The video below cuts off just before landing.

Retired ISS commander Chris Hadfield’s new book “An Astronaut’s Guide to Life On Earth” is now on sale. I got my signed copy today here at NASA JSC! Commander Hadfield is back in Houston for a NASA checkup and is doing some book tour stops while here. Hope to read it and write a review soon!

In Orbit

November is a busy month for deliveries to the ISS. Last weekend, on November 2nd, ATV4 re-entered the atmosphere – undocking had been several days prior. A special experiment took place on ISS to get high resolution photos of the craft burning up and here are the results.

Courtesy ESA

ATV4 re-entry from ISS

With ATV gone, we are gearing up for the arrival of the new ISS crew. The second half of Expedition 38 – Koichi Wakata, Richard Mastracchio, and Mikhail Tyurin – will launch from Kazakhstan on their Soyuz spacecraft on Thursday, November 7. As is the new flavor of Soyuz flights, they will arrive at ISS just 6 hours later. This crew is one of the most veteran-filled to share a Soyuz in a while. Wakata and Mastracchio will each be on their 4th spaceflights while Tyurin will be on his third. I expect that when Wakata returns to Earth, he will be the only Japanese astronaut on the top 50 list of most time in space (Which you can find about halfway down the page here).

The really exciting thing about this Soyuz flight is that it launches before the first half of Expedition 37 leaves ISS – which is usual how we trade out crews. Instead there will be a short period of 9 people onboard ISS for the first time since the end of the Shuttle program. Why are we doing this? So that an Olympic torch can be carried on a Russian EVA this weekend and then quickly returned two days later with the Soyuz TMA-09M crew. In order for this even to work, last Friday that crew climbed aboard their Soyuz in full re-entry suits and “relocated” their spacecraft from one ISS port to another. A lot of work for a little PR. We will see if it pays off.

Around the Solar System

On Tuesday, November 5th, India launched their Mangalyaan spacecraft to Mars. Mangalyaan is a Mars climate orbiter that will reach the red planet next year after a 10-month Hohmann transfer orbit. India’s mission is the first of two missions to launch int he current Mars window. NASA’s MAVEN mission is to launch on November 18.

Out There

I always like getting to talk hard science. There have been some great results regarding astronomy in the past few weeks:

First, astronomers from various universities collaborated on an observation that found the most distant galaxy ever imaged. The work was done at the Keck Observatory in Hawaii (shout out to my dad who does coding work at Keck on the instrument that was used!). The galaxy has an extreme redshift that puts it only 700 million years after the birth of the universe. Hopefully imaging the youngest galaxies will help us understand fundamentals of galaxy formation.

In exoplanet news, there are some developments. Planet Kepler-78b, which is a small very hot planet orbiting its star in just 8.5 hours – had its density measured (using the Doppler Shift method) and it was discovered that it is about the same size and density as the Earth. Most people are calling this the first actual “Earth-like” planet discovered in another solar system. However, it is still too close to its star to be habitable.

But even more exciting, perhaps, than this actual discovery of an “Earth-like” world is the statistical analysis (again using Keck data!) that shows that one-in-five stars in our galaxy is likely to have an Earth-sized planet in the habitable zone. Wow! You might be tempted to say “its just a statistical analysis” but really that’s all any estimate like this is ever going to be because we cannot get direct data on whether all 400 stars have planets. The more planets we discover, the better our sample size, of course. But right now it is looking promising that the follow-on missions to Kepler (JWST and others) have a high likelihood of directly imaging one of these sister Earths. We live in exciting times.

Weekly Links

Down to Earth

Two astronauts announced their departure from the NASA astronaut corps at the end of September – Ron Garan and Greg Chamitoff. Greg Chamitoff actually worked in my office as an ISS guidance officer, almost 20 years ago (although the ISS had not been launched yet at the time).

The J-2X upper stage engine, in development under NASA contract for about 6 years for use first in the Ares program and then on SLS, will apparently be “mothballed” next year. In other words, NASA has decided J-2X won’t work for SLS so it is going on hold until they find a future use for it. Bummer.

The European Space Agency is doing rover field tests in the Atacama Desert in Chile in preparation for their 2018 launch of the ExoMars rover.

Roscosmos – the Russian federal space agency – has once again replaced their head administrator in an effort to end the string of launch failures that has plagued the program over the past few years. Good luck with the new guy.

Speaking of Roscosmos; Russian media reports that they intend to try a new Phobos sample return mission (following their failed Phobos-Grunt mission in 2011). The new mission would not occur until 2020 or later. It bears repeating: good luck.

The SpaceX grasshopper test vehicle had one more test flight earlier this month – video below – which will apparently be the last. I have to admit that I am disappointed. I hope SpaceX has something more exciting up their sleeve; the Falcon 9-R might fit the bill.

The new company out of Tucson, Arizona known as “World View” intends to send paying customers to 30 km altitude in a balloon lifted capsule. The flights wouldn’t technically take tourists to space, but would give them a high altitude view of the Earth for far longer than flights in suborbital vehicles like SpaceShipTwo. Tickets are planned to only be $75,000.

In Orbit

Luca Parmitano wrote a nice blog post about what it was like to capture the Orbital Cygnus spacecraft last month.

A relatively large Near Earth Asteroid, 2013 TV135, was discovered on October 8th. TV135 has a diameter of about 400 feet and came within 4.2 million miles of Earth last month. The asteroid has another close approach in 2032 for which the probability of an Earth impact is 1-in-63,000.

Speaking of asteroids, on October 15 a Russian dive team found a half-ton chunk of the Chelyabinsk impact at the bottom of a lake near Chelyabinsk, Russia. Awesome.

Around the Solar System

On October 9, the NASA Jupiter probe Juno had a close flyby of the Earth to get a gravity assist and start heading to the outer solar system. Here is a view of Earth from Juno near closest approach. And here is a diagram of the spacecraft’s trajectory showing the affect of the Earth flyby.

The 2013 Mars launch window is coming up fast. First up is India’s Mars orbiter, currently scheduled to launch November 5. Then NASA’s MAVEN mission will launch on November 18.

Weekly Links

Down to Earth

One of the three original founders of the Planetary Society, Bruce Murray, passed away on August 29th. Murray was director of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory during the Viking and Voyager era. He started The Planetary Society with Lou Friedman and Carl Sagan in 1980. If you are a space enthusiast and you are not yet a member of the Planetary Society, you are missing out. Check out their website and weekly radio show.

From Wikipedia

Friedman, Murray, Sagan, and journalist Harry Ashmore

Last week three ISS crew members returned to Earth, ending Expedition 36. Chris Cassidy, Pavel Vinogradov, and Alexander Misurkin landed on September 11 in Kazakhstan. Next week a new crew will launch and dock on Wednesday, September 26.

Not Quite in Orbit

It seems cosmonaut Yuri Lonchakov – who was in space on Expedition 18 when I started working at JSC – has decided to retire from the space business. He had been in training to fly as commander of Expedition 44 in two years, which is what makes the departure somewhat confusing. However, as NASA Watch points out, he has been in the corps for a long time, with his first flight over a decade ago on STS-100. Everyone has to move on some time.

Last post I wrote about the second powered flight of SpaceShipTwo on September 5, and included some cool footage of the flight from the ground. Well, since then, Virgin Galactic released this view from onboard the spaceplane. Very cool (via Ubergizmo).

Last week on the 12th, SpaceX did a “static firing” (which means the rocket didn’t go anywhere) of the new Falcon 9 rocket on the pad at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California (here’s a Google Maps link). Unfortunately, they saw some anomalies and the test launch was delayed from the planned date of the 15th. According to Elon Musk, they hope to launch at the end of the month.

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The new rocket is the Falcon 9 version 1.1. As you can see in the graphic below (from Wikipedia), version 1.1 is a significant visual upgrade from the existing Falcon 9. In addition to the payload faring and longer fuel tanks – making it taller – they are upgrading the Merlin engines that power the first stage. All future Falcon flights are supposed to transition to this rocket after the tests, including NASA cargo flights to ISS. So here’s hoping for a good launch in a week or two!

from Wikipedia

Falcon 1, Falcon 9, Falcon 9 v1.1, and Falcon Heavy

In Orbit

This morning at 10:50 AM Eastern, the Antares rocket carrying the first Cygnus cargo craft launched from Wallops Island, Virginia on the way to ISS.

The flight will bring Cygnus up to ISS for rendezvous this coming Sunday, September 22nd. My favorite part of the launch is this clever sign near the launch pad that made for a good photo op. Or maybe this bald eagle who had a front row seat is cooler?

As of this writing, the spacecraft has already done initial checkouts, with more ongoing.

In a nice double-whammy, there was also a big rocket launch from Florida early this morning. A United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket launched an Air Force satellite before dawn at Cape Canaveral.

I was intrigued by this article at the Huffington Post about NASA’s radiation limits on active astronauts. Because of differing risks for cancer between genders, women have lower allowed limits of radiation, meaning they can’t fly as many days in space.

Around the Solar System

In somber news, mission managers of the Deep Impact/EPOXI mission announced earlier this month that they have been out of contact with the spacecraft for about a month. Flight controllers have indications that the onboard computer had a glitch and is now likely spinning out of control, which is why they can’t get commands uplinked to correct the problem – the communications antenna is not pointing towards home. The worry is that if it spins out of control for too long, the batteries won’t get charged from the solar arrays and the spacecraft will die.

EPOXI was launched as Deep Impact in 2005 and has had a very successful mission so far, with the rendezvous and impact of comet Tempel 1 and then years later the dramatic flyby of comet Hartley 2.

The biggest space news so far this month, at least that the public has noticed, was the official announcement by NASA that the Voyager 1 spacecraft has entered interstellar space. Some people were incorrectly reporting the announcement as “Voyager 1 has left the solar system” which makes me roll my eyes (see below). Phil Plait of Bad Astronomy covers this topic well.

from XKCD

Weekly Links

It’s been a whole month since I last posted, so there is some catching up to do. I’m going to try to just hit the highlights.

Down to Earth

A few quick news items from the “NewSpace” sector:

Most exciting and most recently, today Virgin Galactic flew the second powered flight of the SpaceShipTwo space plane. This test involved “feathering” the spaceship’s wings after the engine is shut down to help with a controlled “re-entry”. With this only being the second test flight of the year – the first was back in April – it seems unlikely Virgin will start flights to space by the end of the year. Still, it is awesome to see progress. Here’s a video of the flight.

ATK has partnered with Orbital Sciences to build the rocket for Stratolaunch. Orbital is designing the rocket and ATK will provide the first and second stages. For those that need a refresher, Stratolaunch is the Paul Allen project to have a 747-sized plane be the launch platform for a massive rocket that can deliver as much as 13,500 pounds to Earth orbit.

Last month Sierra Nevada’s “Dream Chaser” space plane went through some taxi tests out in California. Basically, it was just towed down the runway to test the landing gear. But if you think that’s exciting, there’s a video! Interestingly, the nose landing gear is a skid, not a wheel.

SpaceX had another test flight of their “Grasshopper” vertical take off and landing rocket. This time it was a “divert” test where it flew sideways and came back. Here’s the video.

In the NASA world there are a few updates also:

First of all, deputy NASA administrator Lori Garver has announced she will be leaving NASA for a job in the private sector (specifically as president of the American Airline Pilots Association).

Astronaut Mike Foale is also leaving NASA after a 26 year career.

A recent paper was published identifying 12 EROs (easily-retrievable objects) to add to a list of possible destinations for NASA’s asteroid retrieval mission. Unfortunately, Lori Garver (see above) was a chief proponent of this new controversial mission. Check out this article in the Washington Post outlining some of the technical and political issues that may hinder this mission.

In Orbit

Tomorrow night at 11:27 PM Eastern time, NASA’s LADEE (Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer) will launch from the Wallops Island facility in Virginia. The launch should be visible to much of the East coast, so stay up to watch if you can! The spacecraft will not have any cameras. Instead, it has spectrometers and dust scoops for studying the tenuous lunar atmosphere. Once LADEE has launched it will clear the Wallops Island launch range for the Orbital Sciences launch of their first Cygnus flight to ISS on September 17th.

A link I should have posted weeks ago is a first hand account from ESA astronaut Luca Parmitano of the EVA which was aborted in July when his helmet started filling up with water. This was probably the scariest thing to happen in spaceflight since the loss of Columbia a decade ago. Great job by flight controllers and especially Luca in staying calm under pressure.

NASA is officially no longer attempting to fully recover the Kepler Space Telescope. Fortunately, lots of people are thinking of ways Kepler can still do exciting science without the stability of three gyroscopes. One of the most publicized white papers from this past week was the idea to look for planets in the very close habitable zones of white dwarf stars.

Similarly, the WISE spacecraft (wide-field infrared survey explorer) is getting a new mission. WISE is being reactivated on a 3-year mission to look for NEOs (Near-Earth Object). As Phil Plait points out, this mission may be directly related to NASA’s asteroid retrieval mission, and the effort to find a candidate rock to go grab.

To round out the space telescope news, the Spitzer Space Telescope celebrated its 10th year in space this summer. Spitzer ran out of liquid helium coolant in 2009 but is still going strong with its “warm mission”.

In what is a startling development, the United States Air Force’s “Space Fence” will be shut down after the end of this fiscal year. The Space Fence is a key part of our orbital surveillance program. Without the space fence program there will be a gap in capability until if and when the new system comes on line in a few years. It’s very possible that without this system the risk of debris striking any given spacecraft without warning – including the ISS – goes up.

Around the Solar System

Mars rover Curiosity got an awesome set of images of the moon Phobos passing in front of Deimos. Not just a rover!

Because it’s cool

Speaking of Virgin Galactic, the term “space tourism” has been officially added to the OED.

The great XKCD comic recently did a great job describing the basics of orbital mechanics.

Somebody recreated the famous shot of a bike flying in front of the moon from the movie E.T.

In a post in July I wrote about how Hubble had determined the color of a far-flung exoplanet. What I failed to mention that they had also discovered that on this planet it probably “rains glass sideways”, which is a bit of a let down if you are wanting to visit this nifty blue world someday. The web comic Sci-Ence is apparently annoyed at how often the planets we discover are unlivable, and has created a handy guide.

Spacewalk Tomorrow

Tomorrow morning I will be getting up at 4 AM to go in early for my day shift at ISS mission control. I am assigned to the regular day shift from 7 AM to 4 PM all week. It just so happens that the first shift is the same day as a Russian ISS spacewalk. Cosmonauts Fyodor Yurchikhin and Aleksandr Misurkin will perform the 33rd Russian spacewalk onboard ISS. You can read all about what they will be working on over at Spaceflight101.com.

While I will be working a long 11 hour shift starting early in the morning, I am definitely still looking forward to it. This will be my first time in the Flight Control Room for a spacewalk. I previously supported from the Multi-Purpose Support Room for US EVA 20 last fall, with a more experienced flight controller in the ADCO seat. Being assigned a shift as ADCO for an important event like a spacewalk is definitely a lot of responsibility to take on. But ADCO has relatively little to do for most spacewalks when compared to many other flight controllers and support personnel who have a direct responsibility to the safety of the crew and the tasks being performed. If my ADCO team does our job well tomorrow, we will actually do and say very little for all 11 hours we are there.

One important task we have is to send commands related to disabling the Russian Segment thrusters late in the EVA. There are some maintenance tasks that will take the cosmonauts close enough to the back end of the Russian Service Module that flight rules dictate all thruster valves closed for safety reasons. We will be monitoring the spacewalk progress closely to make sure we are ready for disabling thrusters as needed.

Other than that, it will be an exercise in listening and patience. I would say it is an exercise in bladder management also, but at least I am allowed to leave the room briefly for breaks during the spacewalk. The cosmonauts will have to go probably close to 8 hours without food and bathroom breaks. And that’s why I’m not complaining about my 4 AM alarm. Bring on the shift!